Hyperparathyroidism

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    Sex Differences

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    is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Although this form of hyperparathyroidism occurs randomly, some patients inherit a gene that causes the disorder. This is known as the familial isolated hyperparathyroidism and it is due to mutations in the MEN1, CDC73, or CASR gene. The MEN1 gene is the guideline for the production of the protein menin that acts as a tumor suppressor. It prevents cells from growing and dividing too rapidly. Mutations of the MEN1 gene result in an altered menin protein that is no longer able to control cell growth and division The CDC73 gene allows for the making of the parafibromin protein which is a tumor suppressor as well. A mutation here causes a decrease of the parafibromin protein. The CASR gene is involved in the production of the calcium-sensing receptor protein (CaSR). CaSR helps to regulate the amount of calcium in the body, by controlling the production of the parathyroid hormone. The calcium molecules bind to the CaSR and this activates the receptor. The activated receptor sends signals to block the production and release of the parathyroid hormone. A mutation here allows only abnormally high concentrations…

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    Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica

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    Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica is a condition that is associated with excessive parathyroid hormone production (hyperparathyroidism), in which bone tissue becomes soft and deformed. Treatment is directed toward the underlying parathyroid condition and relieving any bone pain. Before 1950, about half of people diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism had Osteitis Fibrosa. Now it is uncommon, probably because patients with hyperparathyroidism are diagnosed earlier, before this complication has occurred. OFC…

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    Parathyroidism-Jaw Tumors

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    Tumors of the parathyroid glands frequently occur with a prevalence of 0.1-0.4% in the general population, increasing up to 4% of postmenopausal women [1]. Parathyroid tumors are often associated with PTH hypersecretion determining primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), which represents the third most common endocrine disease following diabetes and thyreopathies. In PHPT, PTH hypersecretion due to tumor parathyroid cell proliferation, induces hypercalcemia by increasing calcium mobilization from…

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    The correct answer is C Osteitis Deformans (also known as Paget’s disease). Paget's is caused by the excessive breakdown and formation of bone, followed by disorganized bone remodeling. This causes affected bone to weaken, resulting in pain, misshapen bones, fractures and arthritis in the joints near the affected bones. An elevated level of alkaline phosphatase in the blood in combination with normal calcium, phosphate, and aminotransferase levels in an elderly patient are suggestive of Paget's…

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    Major risk factors such as : age ≥ 50 years, fragility fracture after age 40, family history of osteoporotic fracture (especially maternal hip fracture),systemic glucocorticoid therapy of > 3 months duration, malabsorption syndrome, primary hyperparathyroidism, hgypogonadism, early menopause (before age 45), and osteopenia apparent on X-ray film(8). Minor risk factors as Rheumatoid arthritis, past history of clinical hyper thyroidism, chronic anti-convulsant therapy, low diatery calcium…

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    distant heart sounds, and tendency to develop heart failure, angina, and myocardial infarction. 28. Integumentary effects of hypothyroidism include: Dry, thick and cold skin, thin/brittle nails, sparse/coarse hair, poor turgor, generalized edema, puffy face, decreased sweating, and pallor. 29. Nursing diagnosis associated with hypothyroidism include: Imbalanced nutrition: More than body requirements r/t calorie intake in excess of metabolic rate. Constipation r/t GI hypo-mobility. Impaired…

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    Hypocalcemia, Infant Hypocalcemia means the calcium level in the blood is low. Calcium is a mineral in the body that is important for the function of: • Heart and muscle. • Cells. • Nerves. • Bone structure. • Blood clotting. There are 2 kinds of hypocalcemia in infants: • Early hypocalcemia happens in the first few days of life. This early type is usually a temporary problem that is easily treated. • Late hypocalcemia shows up after the first few days of life. CAUSES Early…

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    Hypertension is a heterogeneous disorder that may result either from a specific cause (secondary hypertension) or from an underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of unknown etiology (primary or essential hypertension). Secondary hypertension accounts for fewer than 10% of cases, and most of these are caused by chronic kidney disease or renovascular disease. Other conditions causing secondary hypertension include pheochromocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, primary…

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    Facts About Osteoporosis

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    the National Institute of Health. There are four types of osteoporosis, but the main type is the primary osteoporosis which is the most common one. Primary osteoporosis is more common in women than men because women have thinner bones than men. For women, the change of a bone loss is usually after when the menstrual period stops. When this happens, the production of estrogen slows down between the ages of 45 to 55 in women. For men, it usually starts at the age of 45 to 50, because a man’s…

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    Linda Milbourne Biography

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    Science, Seed, Make magazine and other publications. She has a bachelor’s in physics from Tufts University. She studied graduate-level physics at the University of California, Berkeley. She later also co-authored several academic papers in nonlinear optics. Sandra Levy Sandra Levy is a reporter specializing in health and healthcare trends. She works as the Associate Editor of Healthline Networks’ news division. From 1998 to 2008, Levy was a reporter, and managing Editor-Projects for Drug…

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