Risk Factors Of Osteoporosis Essay

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Risk factors o osteoporosis

All postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age must be assessed for the presence of risk factors for osteoporosis (5). The selected key risk factors should aid physicians in identifying those who require further assessment and investigation to determine whether medical intervention is needed to reduce their risk of osteoporotic (fragility) fracture. The main areas of concern are wrist, humerus, ribs, vertebral body, pelvis and hip. When a patient is identified as having a high risk for fracture, a discussion regarding treatment is recommended (5). Clinical judgment and the reference, as well as evidence based clinical trial data, will determine if, when and what treatment is initiated (5). In elderly women with no history of hip fracture, such variables as bone density, calcium intake, maternal history and even hair color were related to the incidence of hip fracture during 4 years of follow-up(5) . Important predictive factors were bone density in combination with age, fracture history, various drug treatments, weight loss and physical fitness. A review of 94 cohort studies and 76
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Major risk factors such as : age ≥ 50 years, fragility fracture after age 40, family history of osteoporotic fracture (especially maternal hip fracture),systemic glucocorticoid therapy of > 3 months duration, malabsorption syndrome, primary hyperparathyroidism, hgypogonadism, early menopause (before age 45), and osteopenia apparent on X-ray film(8). Minor risk factors as Rheumatoid arthritis, past history of clinical hyper thyroidism, chronic anti-convulsant therapy, low diatery calcium intake, excessive alcohol, caffeine intake, smoking, weight less than 57kg, weight loss more than 10% of weight at 25 years and chronic heparin therapy(9). The four key risk factors of fracture are; low BMD, prior fragility fracture, old age and family history of osteoporosis

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