Sex Differences

Question #1
Diaz, Shanna., Borzoo, Farhang., (2009) Sex Differences in the Cannabinoid Modulation of Appetite, Body Temperature, and Neurotransmission at POMC Synapses. Neuroendocrinology, 89, 424-440 DOI: 10.1159/000191646. In this study conducted by Shanna Diaz et al., researchers were interested in determining whether sex differences exist for the cannabinoid modulation of appetite, body temperature, and neurotransmission at POMC synapses. The drugs that were used in this experiment were a 1 mg/kg s.c. agonist CB1 receptor WIN 55,212-2, a 3 mg/kg s.c. antagonist AM251, and a 1 ml/kg s.c. vehicle. This study had two parts to it with one focusing on the behavioral aspects of the animals and the other on the biological aspects. Behavioral
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The enlargement of two or more glands is also a causation. The noncancerous growth also called adenoma is the most common cause followed by enlargement or hyperplasia. Having a cancerous tumor is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Although this form of hyperparathyroidism occurs randomly, some patients inherit a gene that causes the disorder. This is known as the familial isolated hyperparathyroidism and it is due to mutations in the MEN1, CDC73, or CASR gene. The MEN1 gene is the guideline for the production of the protein menin that acts as a tumor suppressor. It prevents cells from growing and dividing too rapidly. Mutations of the MEN1 gene result in an altered menin protein that is no longer able to control cell growth and division The CDC73 gene allows for the making of the parafibromin protein which is a tumor suppressor as well. A mutation here causes a decrease of the parafibromin protein. The CASR gene is involved in the production of the calcium-sensing receptor protein (CaSR). CaSR helps to regulate the amount of calcium in the body, by controlling the production of the parathyroid hormone. The calcium molecules bind to the CaSR and this activates the receptor. The activated receptor sends signals to block the production and release of the parathyroid hormone. A mutation here allows only abnormally high concentrations …show more content…
During surgery, all four glands are examined for the potential in inherited causes. The overactive gland is usually located by ultrasound and nuclear medicine scan imaging before surgery. This works for up to 90% of single adenomas but it is less successful for multiple adenomas and mild hyperparathyroidism. In the single adenoma patients, if removal is successful, the patient can be discharged as cured. If surgery is not suitable for the patient, there are treatments that will help to alieve the condition but not cure it. There are specific drugs that can treat the symptom of osteoporosis. Another drug, Cinacalcet, reduces the hormone secretion and helps to reduce calcium

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