DM and GalA content were determined according to the method reported by Aina et al.,  and Food Chemical Codex 1996 . 0.1g of pectin was weighed into a 250 mL conical flask, then wetted with 5mL ethanol. 100mLof deionized water was added, then six drops of phenolphthalein (0.1% in ethanol) indicator to each sample. Pectin dispersions were stirred until it was fully dissolved, thereafter, the solution was titrated slowly with 0.1N NaOH until the colour of the indicator just changed to…
Here are five steps to follow when checking your car's battery.
1. Clean up the terminals.
When checking your battery, you will probably notice a powdery substance on the positive and negative terminals. This powdery residue is made by battery acid,…
Saponification is a method used in treating a neutral fat with alkali, breaking it down to glycerol and fatty acids. The saponification value or saponification number is the amount of alkali needed to saponify the given quantity of fat or oil, expressed as mg potassium hydroxide to saponify 1 g of the sample.
In this experiment, the researchers used chemicals such as ethanol, hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and phenolphthalein indicator. Laboratory Apparatuses and Equipment…
Part 1 - Making the solutions of the citric acid samples.
Rinse all the apparatus very well before using them in the experiment while performing any step.
To make the samples we need to take the sample and add distilled water to it so that there is decent amount of sample made for performing the experiment. The ratio of distilled water to the sample solution (pure) is 1:1. [Note: there wont be any change in the molarity of the sample as we are just increasing the volume by adding distilled…
Lab 14/ Test 6: Determination of Acid Dissociation Constants through Titration
The two unknown solutions A and E were titrated with NaOH solutions. For each solution, one fast and three slow titrations were done to see where the pH rose exponentially.
The unknown solutions A and E were determined to be Pyridinium ion acid and oxalic acid, respectively.
One significant concept throughout this lab is titrations. A titration is a lab method analyzes a…
Acid Base Balance Study Guide
The body’s ability to regulate and compensate for variances of the acidity or alkalinity of body fluids through mechanisms in the brain, kidneys, lungs, and buffering system.
Concept Key Terms:
• Acid: any substance that has a pH less than 7.0
• Acidosis: the condition of having too much acid build up in body fluids, below 7.35
• Alkalosis: the condition of having too much alkaline build up in body fluids, above 7.45
• Anion: a negatively charge…
experiment performed provided insight on the importance of acid-base interactions and the pH of solutions that are involved in a variety of aspects including industrial, environmental, and biological contexts. Back titration was used to determine the number of moles of HCl acid that were neutralized by a single tablet of several variations of commercial antacids. In theory, the antacid that neutralized the largest number of moles of acid was found to be the most effective. The results attained…
In step d) 10cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid is added to the separating funnel containing paracetamol, caffeine and ethyl acetate mixture. This protonates the caffeine which therefore gives it a positive charge allowing it to be soluble in the hydrochloric acid aqueous layer whereas the paracetamol stays in the ethyl acetate, since the two mixtures, ethyl acetate and hydrochloric acid do not mix then the caffeine is separated from the paracetamol and ethyl…
Determining the Chemical Formula of a Hydrate
Experiment required: copper (II) sulfate hydrate, 2 crucibles, electronic mass balance, bunsen burner, iron ring, crucible tong, clay triangle, wire gauze, retort stand,
1. Individuals should wear goggles on and tied hair back before the experiment started.
2. The mass of an empty crucible cover was measured.
3. Approximately 2.00g of copper (II) sulfate hydrate samples was taken out and put into the crucible.
4. The mass of the crucible…
quantity taken for amino acid analysis. Diluted hydrochloric acid was used for Free amino extraction. Nitrogenous macromolecules that were co-extracted were precipitated using sulfosalicylic acid and removed by filtration. A mixture of performic acid and phenol was used for Oxidation at 0°C. Hydrolysates of the sample were then adjusted to pH 2.2 using 7.5M sodium hydroxide sol. Amino acid analyzer based on ion exchange chromatography was used to separate amino acids. Amino acids were…