The purpose of this experiment was to prepare and standardize a sodium hydroxide solution as well as determine the molar concentration in as strong acid and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar. We used volumetric analysis, also known as titration, in both experiments. The average molar concentration for NaOH was 0.2749 mol/L while the average molar concentration of the acid solution was .2493 mol/L.The average percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar was found to be 12.3 %
The Purpose of experiment 9 was to prepare and standardize a sodium hydroxide solution as well as determine the molar concentration of a strong acid. The purpose of experiment 10 was to use what we learn in experiment 9 in order to determine the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar. Learning Volumetric Analysis is important and relevant to science because it helps determine concentrations of unknown substances. Due to the fact that sodium hydroxide is extremely hygroscopic, as a solid it mass cannot be measured with a primary standard solution also known as an accurate molar concentration. To solve this we have to standardize the Sodium hydroxide solution with an acid. In order to determine the molar concentration of…
very high pH of 12, it can be predicted that sample number 2 is the oven cleaner that contains Sodium Hydroxide. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is highly corrosive due to its elements; the presence of oxygen and an electrolyte (Sodium – Na) cause corrosion, the breakdown of a metal resulting from reactions with chemicals in its environment. The oxygen oxidizes with the metal, and the sodium help speed up the corrosion process. The presence of oxygen and electrolytes (Sodium – Na) in sample number 2…
Titrating Vinegar with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
Acids are anions that have at least one hydrogen cation tacked onto their molecular formulas. The Bronsted definition of an acid states that acid is a proton, H+, donor.3 Acids can fall into one of two categories: they can be strong or weak. Strong acids completely dissociate their H+ and weak acids only partially dissociate their H+.3 This means that a strong acid cannot return to its initial state once it undergoes a reaction. On the…
The Case of the Mix-Matched Chemicals
Hypothesis: By measuring the pH of the unknown and known chemicals, the types of chemicals in the unknown bottles will become known.
Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the type of chemicals that are inside the mislabeled bottles.
• pH strips
• 8 bottles of known chemicals:
o silver nitrate
o iron (III) nitrate
o copper (II) nitrate
o sodium iodine
o sodium hydroxide
o nitric acid
o lead (II) nitrate
Acid-base titrations are used to calculate properties of an acid or a base by titrating them with a strong Acid or base. In a titration, certain amount of volume of one substance usually a strong acid or base, a titrant, is added to another substance, an acid or base of some kind, until a change in properties are observed. Strong acids and bases are used because they allow the neutralization reaction between the acid and base into salt to go to completion. By titrating an unknown…
• 50mL burette
• 250mL conical flask
• 2 x Beaker
• Measuring Cylinder
• Standard solution of Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH(aq)
• Two different brands of vinegar
• Phenolphthalein Indicator
• A clean white tile
• Distilled water
• Retort Stand
• Electronic Balance
1. Put on and tie up safety apron.
2. Put on safety glasses.
3. Tie up hair if it is long.
4. Ensure a clear and clean work space.
1. Wash out measuring cylinder with…
experiment, a titration was carried out using a standard solution of hydrochloric acid to establish the molarity of a solution of sodium hydroxide. The concentration of acid in the gastric juice sample was determined using that solution of sodium hydroxide. The pH of gastric juice was then calculated and compared with the value determined by…
In this experiment, a Wittig reaction was performed in order to synthesize a mixtures of (E)- and (Z)-stilbene. Photoisomerization was then performed to isolate (E)-stilbene by transforming (Z)-stilbene into (E)-stilbene. The presence of the products throughout the experiment was monitored by 1H NMR. The final product was then characterized by 1H NMR, IR and its melting point.
During synthesize of the product, the appearance of the reaction mixture changed. The main solution…
used as the primary acid standard to determine the molar concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution in part one of the experiment. It was known that the potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium hydroxide should have had a 1:1 stoichiometric molar ratio. Potassium hydrogen phthalate was used as the primary standard because it is a very pure concentrated substance that can be predicted. However, the sodium hydroxide is too difficult to be measured because of its tendency to absorb water vapor.…