to determine pH levels of various substances using different methods. Two techniques were used, the pH paper indicator and the pH meter. Out of ten substances that were used, five of them were found to be acidic, namely: hydrochloric acid, coke, toothpaste, milk, and acetic acid. Sodium hydroxide, buffer solution, bleach, and the detergent were found to be basic. Bottle water was found to be neutral. Substances are said to be acidic because of having pH levels lesser than 7, and those having pH…
The purpose of this lab is to calculate the chemical formula of a hydrate compound made up of copper, chlorine, and water molecules by using the law of definite proportions. The water of hydration of the copper chloride hydrate sample will be determined as well as the mass of copper and chlorine through a chemical reaction. The results will be used to calculate the moles of copper and chlorine and then the empirical formula of the compound.
In this experiment, different…
indigestion or symptoms of acid reflux. There are many types of antacids such as calcium, aluminum and magnesium. They’re many ways to consume antacids such as liquids, tablets and chewable tablets. The experiment will be tested with three different antacids which are: bismuth ($5.99) (picture 1&4), life brand milk of magnesia ($8.99) (picture 2&3) and Gaviscon ($11.99) (picture 5).
The purpose of this experiment was to figure out the best brand of antacid…
alcohol while eating, or eating greasy, fried or spicy foods. Acid in the stomach helps digest food and prevents infection. Mucus lines the stomach, bowel and oesophagus and acts as a barrier against the acid. If the layer of mucous gets damaged, the stomach acid can aggravate and cause inflammation to the stomach; this leads to indigestion or heartburn. Antacids are medicines that can relieve symptoms of indigestion by neutralising the acid in the stomach. They are made up of bases and…
Segregate chemical storage away from students in a ventilated, locked storeroom.
Store acids in a labeled, locked, corrosion resistant cabinet.
1 M hydrochloric acid, HCl acid; storage code: White.
0.1 M acetic acid, (CH3COOH ); storage code: White
Store nitric acid stored alone away from other acids in a labeled, locked, corrosion resistant cabinet.
0.2 M nitric acid, (HN03); storage code: White
Store bases in a labeled, locked, corrosion resistant cabinet.
detergents, the group tried to dissolve all the beginning substances and finished products in a multitude of solvents. In the testing of the four starting substances for the soaps, the group found that all the substances were insoluble in water and hydrochloric acid. However, vegetable oil was soluble in sodium hydroxide whereas the rest of the substances were not. This proposes that the beginning substances for the soaps are non-polar organic materials, as shown on page 59 of the lab manual1.…
Based off the results from this lab the student was able to determine whether the model cell and cell environment each represent a hypertonic, hypotonic or isotonic solution. The first solution cell and environment the student had, was water and sodium chloride. In this instance water was the model cell (what was in the dialysis tubing) and Sodium chloride was the surround environment (plastic cup). The initial weight of the model cell was 13.2g, but after sitting in the sodium…
Batch adsorption experiments
Adsorption of the Pb2+ ions by the Fe3O4@GMA-AAm nanocomposite was measured from batch adsorption experiments by mixing 10 mg of adsorbent with an aqueous solution containing a predetermined concentration of Pb2+ ions (50 mL). The mixture was shaken at 200 rpm to reach equilibrium. After a specified time, the solid and liquid were separated by external magnet and the concentrations of Pb2+ ions were measured by AAS. To find the optimized pH in adsorption of Pb2+ ions…
Alka-Seltzer is a medication used to alleviate ailments such as heartburn and acid indigestion1. The ingredients that the tablet is made up of helps explain the name of the medication, the sodium bicarbonate is used to balance stomach acid, help spread the aspirin which allows the speed of absorption to increase, and reacts with citric sodium which produces carbon dioxide2. One initial observation of the Alka-Seltzer tablet and water is that when the tablet was dropped into the…
Table 8: Pre Formulation Study
S.NO API CHARACTERISATION RESULTS
1 Physical Appearance a white to slightly pink crystalline powder
2 Melting point 138-148 ºC
3 Bulk density 0.396 gm/ml
4 Tapped Density 0.421 gm/ml
5 Carr’s index/Compressibility index 5.94
6 Hausner’s Ratio 1.063
The value of compressibility index above 25%, 15-25%, less than10% indicates poor flowability, optimum flowability and high flowability respectively. As Efaverinz value is <10 so it exhibits…