Phagocytosis

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    Endocytosis Synthesis

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    Phagocytosis: The effects of time and Latrunculin on endocytosis. Introduction Phagocytosis is a process in which cells engulfed foreign materials. Eukaryotic cells can engulf different particles and solutes from their environment using a variety of mechanisms called endocytosis. Some cells can carry out large endocytic processes called phagocytosis and micropinocytosis. These processes can internalize particles (>0.5um) whereas internalization of fluids through micropinocytosis mechanisms or solute into vesicles for size less than (<0.5) Phagocytosis is a ubiquitous process throughout nature. The behavior can be observed in unicellular organisms like amoeba using phagocytosis to obtain nutrients. Similarly, for vertebrates phagocytosis is an efficient method used by phagocytic cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils to uptake, eliminate pathogens and cellular debris from the body. Understanding phagocytosis depends on several steps involving interaction between phagocyte surface receptors with ligands on the surface of particles and cytoskeletal rearrangement (polymerization of actin) for the formation of an early endosome into a phagosome.…

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    Phagocytosis Experiment

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    Introduction: The ultimate goal of this laboratory experiment was to have a better understanding of phagocytosis and how certain factors may affect the rate of phagocytosis. The first part of the experiment was to test the effects of both concentrations of India ink, and feeding status on the rate of phagocytosis. Through this testing one can identify the conditions necessary to obtain the highest rate of phagocytosis. The second part of this lab was taking the variables that maximize the rate…

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    The Bubonic Plague is a bacteria known as Yersinia Pestis that infects the lymphatic system causing it to become inflamed (Tonsils, Adenoids, Spleen, and Thymus). The bacteria needs calcium to grow but when there is no calcium it produces amino acids called aspartic acid. Aspartic acid raises the blood plasma level of aspartate and glutamate. This excess can lead to damage of sensitive neurons. It can also help generate cellular energy, balance neurochemistry, and help the liver rid the body of…

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    Tetrahymena Lab Report

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    The Effect of Dri-Contrad on Phagocytosis in Tetrahymena Methods: A control group of Tetrahymena was first made up of 450 microliters of Tetrahymena and 450 microliters of carbon solution in a microcentrifuge tube and a timer was immediately started. 100 microliters of iodine were added to three other microcentrifuge tubes which were labeled C3, C6, and C9 to act as a stop solution by killing the Tetrahymena. At three minutes, 100 microliters of solution were pipetted from the control tube to…

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    bacteria, or what type of foreign substance it is. They generally respond to things that are bad. All they know is that they see something that isn’t suppose to belong and they respond to it, but they don’t remember it. The first line of defense includes the physical and chemical barriers of the skin, acid in our stomachs, or the acidity of the oils on the outside of our skin. Our skin provides a barrier which helps foreign substances from piercing into the body and causing diseases. The…

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    Chemotaxis Lab Report

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    They are largely motile and contain cilia on the surface that assist with movement and gathering food. The process by which T. thermophila obtains most of its nutrients is called phagocytosis. During phagocytosis, particles are consumed by a portion of the plasma membrane. This results in the formation of a vesicle, or phagosome, which then fuses with a lysosome in the cytoplasm to break down and digest food particles. However, a large fraction of bacteria engulfed by protozoa are not digested.…

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    However exocytosis is the process in which debris enter a cell; this process can be sectioned off into three different parts: Phagocytosis, pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Phagocytosis is where recognition receptors detect threats to the immune system, and then the macrophage submerges the particle in a pocket called a phagosome where the enzymes are then released into the pocket by one of the organelles (Mosser, D. and Edwards, J. 2008) where lysosomes release digestive enzymes…

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    2013). Innate immunity is rapid and works against a wide variety of pathogens. Physical factors of innate immunity are the physical barrier that the epidermis and dermis provide, very few pathogens can penetrate the layers of epidermal cells unless skin has been, burned, broken, or cut. The skin and mucous membranes of the body are normally home to a variety of bacteria. These normal microbiotas play a role in protecting the body by competing with potential pathogens in a variety of ways called…

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    Paramecium

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    Paramecium is part of the Alveolata clade, which are heterotrophs and a major clade that belogs to the kingdom Protista. Paramecium are single-celled organisms with an oval, slipper shaped. On the outside of the Paramecium you can find the radiatin canal and a contractile vacuole. The cytoplasm, food vacuoles, the macronucleus, and the micronucleus are located inside. Another characteristic of them is that they move faster than other protists. They live in aquatic environments, but most usual in…

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    Molds In Deuteromycota

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    Unlike most organisms, they are able to use their own enzymes to digest plant biopolymers such as cellulose or lignin. Collagen, an abundant structural protein in animals, and keratin—a protein that forms hair and nails—, can also serve as food sources. Enzymes secreted by molds also provide resistance to phagocytosis even some also represents several carnivorous fungi, which have developed hyphal traps to capture small protists such as amoebae, as well as roundworms(Nematoda), rotifers,…

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