Cytosol

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    of phospholipids and can fuse with some other organelles; phospholipids are a major part of cell membranes because they make lipid bilayers, which form a protective layer by the phospholipids tails pointing inward and the heads pointing inwards, protecting the lipids from water. Plasma membranes not only acts as a barrier, but also a gateway which allows unwanted cell molecules inside, while at the same time not allowing the digestive enzymes to escape into the cell. The enzymes inside the lysosomes are acid hydrolases, which have a pH of 5; these are maintained inside the lysosome, which is then surrounded in an intracellular fluid called Cytosol, which has a pH of around 7.2. The Cytosol enables the lysosome to be increasingly protected against uncontrolled digestion due to the acid hydrolases pH levels being neutralised by the cytosol (Cooper, G. 2000). How the Lysosomes breaks down unwanted cell debris begins with an unwanted debris, for example a damaged section of a cell, which form a double membrane, called an auto phagosome, which moving towards the edge of the lysosome, this is where the plasma membrane creates an oral cavity where the damaged cell is absorbed into and the digestive enzymes are the released in controlled amounts, due to a hydrogen pump, and begin to break down the molecule into consumable food; this process is called autophagy(Bscb.org, 2016). The movement of macromolecules in and out of a cell is called exocytosis and endocytosis; endocytosis is…

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    Niemann-Pick disease is a condition that affects many body systems. It has a wide range of symptoms that vary in severity. Niemann-Pick disease is divided into four main types: type A, type B, type C1, and type C2. These types are classified on the basis of genetic cause and the signs and symptoms of the condition. Infants with Niemann-Pick disease type A usually develop an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly) by age 3 months and fail to gain weight and grow at the expected rate…

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    Enzymatic Assay Lab Report

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    Biochemical foundation for each of the four enzymatic assays performed on each cellular fraction. We performed various assays on each of the four log phase culture fractions, as well as the extracellular fraction from a stationary phase culture, to test the localization of the enzymes. For the protease assay, a specific soluble chromogenic substrate called azocasein was employed to determine presence of enzyme activity. The degradation of this substrate in trichloroacetic acid produces a colour…

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    The predicted results support the stated hypothesis. As we increase the concentration of Fernaldia in the group of neurons, we can find a decrease in the concentration of neurotransmitters in the vesicles and a decrease and an increase in the concentration of degraded neurotransmitter components in the cytosol. This supports the statement that there are fewer neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft since there are fewer neurotransmitters in the synaptic vesicles. Alternative hypothesis:…

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    A breakdown in the proteins that regulate the concentration of Ca2+ ions in the heart is often seen in patients who suffer from heart failure. In particular, one of the most important regulators of Ca2+ ion concentration in the heart is sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). The dominant form of this gene in myocardial tissue is SERCA2a, and it is responsible for removing around 75% of the Ca2+ ions from the cytosol of muscle cells in the heart. SERCA2a acts like a pump that…

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    Cell Respiration

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    Cell respiration is affected when the heart stops. Cells are using up ATP. Therefore, carbon dioxide is building up in the cells and the PH levels cannot balance themselves. Glucose is needed to start glycolysis. Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions that produces ATP from the glucose. Oxygen is needed for the mitochondria. The mitochondria are referred to as the powerhouse of cells. Carbon dioxide is not being released. The cells begin to die and the transport pump then stops working.…

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    Meth activates dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter release from the cytosol to the extracellular space through the process of reverse transport through dopamine transporters (DAT). According to previous knowledge, methamphetamine use has shown evidence of dopamine oxidation within the neuronal cytosol. Dopamine’s reactive structure allows it to oxidize to produce free radicals and reactive quinones, an aromatic compound. Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT-2) are responsible for packaging dopamine…

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    Osmosis Lab Report

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    Isotonic means the solutions contain equal concentrations of impermeable solutes. Hypotonic means a solution has lesser solute concentration than the cytosol, for example we are hypotonic with respect to saltwater. The bags of sucrose solutions were hypotonic compared to the water, which is the reason that the water entered the bag and the bag gained weight. The bag of water was hypertonic compared to the sucrose solution, which is why the water exited the bag and the bag lost weight. The bag of…

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    The Genes that are needed in the production of antibody are contained in the DNA. The production of antibody begins with the genes of the antibody being transcribed into mRNA this leaves the nucleus by joining on to the ribosome. Lots of cells secrete proteins into their surrounding extracellular fluid. Some cells like hormones and neurotransmitters secrete regulatory molecules. Whereas others release digestive enzymes, antibodies, or mucus. Fibroblasts secrete collagen are the whole body and…

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    Calcium Signaling

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    these are repeated to set Ca2+ oscillation. (2.24) “On" reactions respond to extracellular signals leading to increasing cytosolic Ca2+. An influx of cation or efflux of anion can mediate membrane depolarisation. Calcium enters the cytosol from the extracellular space via different channels; upon depolarisation, voltage-operated channels- found mainly in excitable cells, allows rapid entry of Ca2+ so that it can control fast processes such as muscle contraction and release of neurotransmitter at…

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