Pharmacokinetics

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    Female Sprague

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    analysis. Tissue samples of the liver, kidney, heart, lung, and spleen were dissected and taken immediately after taking the blood sample at the terminal time (PFOA, 24 h; PFOS, 70 day; PFHxS, 336 h) and stored frozen (−80 °C) until analysis. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by WinNonlin® software (version 6.4, Pharsight®, a Certara™ Company). The Cmax and the time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were determined by the visual observation of the individual plasma concentration–time profiles of PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve from zero to time infinity (AUC0-∞) was calculated as AUC0-t + Ct/k, where Ct is the last measurable concentration. AUC0-t was calculated by the linear trapezoidal rule from zero to the last measurable time point. The clearance (CL) was calculated as the dose of PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS divided by AUC0-∞. The CL/F was calculated as the dose of the three PFCs divided by AUC0-∞, where F is the oral bioavailability. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was calculated as 0.693/k, where k is the elimination rate constant at the terminal phase. The volume of distribution (Vd) was calculated as the dose divided by the concentration of three PFCs in plasma. All the values of the pharmacokinetic parameters were expressed as the mean value ± standard error (mean ± SE). Analytical methodology Instruments and chromatographic conditions The analytical method such as instrument parameters, chromatography conditions, and sample…

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    Pharmacokinetics Analysis

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    Pharmacokinetics is the branch of pharmacology that describes how the body affects a specific drug after administration. A number of phases occur once the drug enters into contact with the gastro intestinal wall, these are described using the acronym ADME, starting with the mechanisms of absorption, which is the process by which a substance enters the blood circulation. Distribution, where the dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body. ADME also…

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    SUD: A Case Study

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    high affinity and low dissociation constant. The low intrinsic activity would limit the action of BUP after a certain dose i.e. a ceiling effect, and any dose increase would result in an increase in duration rather than potency. The high affinity means that if administered after agonists and antagonist, BUP would displace them from the mu receptor, and if administered after BUP, agonists nor antagonists would displace BUP. On the other hand, the low dissociation constant means that BUP is…

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    Docetaxel Solubility

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    and was found to be 2.3 times lower than the pure docetaxel indicating higher cytotoxicity of docetaxel by formulating as L-SNEDDS (Fig. 9D) compared to pure docetaxel (Fig. 9C). However, blank L-SNEDDS (Fig. 9B) exhibited only non-significant cytotoxic effect and shown similar cell viability compared to non-treated control cells (Fig. 9A). The enhanced cytotoxicity of L-SNEDDS might be due to the high permeability and rapid absorption of molecularly dissolved cytotoxic drug into the cancer…

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    Keywords: Aralia continetalis Kitagawa; Kaurenoic acid; Phase I; Pharmacokinetics; Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Abbreviations: AIC, akaike information criteria; AUC0-∞, the area under the concentration–time curve from zero to infinity; CL/F, the total body clearance for oral administration; Cmax, the maximum plasma concentration; CV, coefficient of variation; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; ka, the absorption rate constant; IS, internal…

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    BEMA Film Analysis

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    BEMA film was designed to rapidly deliver a drug across the mucosa when fast onset of effect is required and to formulate drugs with poor oral bioavilability[1] Buprenorphine has very poor oral bioavailability(~10%) due to extensive first pass metabolism[3] and hence cannot be formulated as an oral tablet. IM, IV, suppository, transdermal, sublingual and buccal administration routs all bypass first pass metabolism and hence increase the bioavailability however IM, IV or suppositories would be…

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    Clinical Trial Process

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    1. Describe the clinical trials process of how a drug is approved by the FDA. The clinical trials process can be divided into four phases. Phase one, the researchers recruit a small group of healthy people (20-100 people) into the trial. This phase focuses on absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. The small dose will be administered. At the end of phase one, the safe dosage and the best route to administer drug will be set. Phase two is similar to phase one. The difference is…

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    2.3. Pharmacokinetics of (S)-ketoprofen 2.3.1. Blood sampling On the day of the study, rats were cannulated approximately 30 min before uric acid injection and 3 h before the drugs were administered. The animals were anesthetized and the caudal artery was cannulated with a PE-10 cannula (Clay Adams, Parsippany, NJ, USA) connected to a PE-50 cannula. The cannula was kept patent with heparinized saline solution and stopped with a needle. Rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia and…

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    Diagnostic Summary

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    According to Edmunds (2014) pharmacokinetics is when the action of a medication in the body is study, which includes the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (Edmunds, 2014). The patient that currently being cared for is a 73 year old female with past medical history of atrial fibrillation, kidney dysfunction and diabetes mellitus. Currently the patient takes the following medications: Pravastatin 10 mg, Lisinopril 2.5 mg, Digoxin 0.125 mg, Warfarin 7.5 mg, HCTZ 25 mg,…

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    Vancomycin Research Paper

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    Alicia your topic is very interesting and the issues that you have raised are noteworthy. One of the things you mentioned on your post is that a good portion of the vancomycin is removed when it is given during the hemodialysis. As a pediatric OR nurse specializing in open heart surgeries, I immediately asked myself whether our patients undergo the same thing when they receive prophylactic vancomycin dose and then later go through cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Vancomycin is given as an…

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