Eukaryotic Cell Essay

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Eukaryotic cells are cells whose nucleus is bound by a membrane; these cells contain organelles, which are structures each enclosed within its own membrane found only in eukaryotic cells, each organelle has a specific function inside a cell. One type of organelle is a lysosome, which are the organelles that dispose of waste and toxins. Lysosomes are fluid filled sacks which range in size from 0.1 to 1.2 micrometres and contain around fifty degradative enzymes that enable it to effectively dispose of unwanted substances inside of a cell; this includes excess and faulty organelles, food particles, viruses and bacteria (, 2016). These are contained inside of a plasma membrane which are made up of phospholipids and can fuse …show more content…
However exocytosis is the process in which debris enter a cell; this process can be sectioned off into three different parts: Phagocytosis, pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Phagocytosis is where recognition receptors detect threats to the immune system, and then the macrophage submerges the particle in a pocket called a phagosome where the enzymes are then released into the pocket by one of the organelles (Mosser, D. and Edwards, J. 2008) where lysosomes release digestive enzymes into, breaking down the debris which is then excreted from the cell. Pinocytosis is virtually the same process as phagocytosis except for the cell engulfs liquid in a somewhat smaller sack that is formed during phagocytosis; finally receptor-mediated endocytosis, unlike the other two processes is a selective process; this consists of cell proteins in pits on the surface of the cell acting as receptors which bind with molecules and the cell will only absorb certain cells if they are bound to a particular receptor. …show more content…
B-lymphocytes begin this process through activation caused by the BCR’s, B-cell receptors, which are proteins located on the surface of B-cells; this is also caused by the antigen itself or T-cells, this then triggers the B-cell to produce germinal cores which can either be memory cells or plasma cells. Memory cells remember one, and only one, specific type of antigen code and plasma cells secrete antibodies to target that unique antigen code. Lysosomes aid these cells by moving to the synapse that is created when the B-cells are stimulated; here they enable the synapse the extracellular release of hydrolases that promote production of Ag, which aids in the presentation of BCR’s.

In conclusion, lysosomes are very common in animal cells-with the exception of red blood cells due to them losing all organelles once matured-and play an important role in maintaining the bodies immunity because it is evident that lysosomes appear in higher quantities of those cell involved in antigen

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