Electrophilic aromatic substitution

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    Experiment 7 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Of Salicyamide Name: Lidia Santiana Palha Student number: s3333523 Email-address: lidiapalha@gmail.com Name of demonstrator: H.Helbert Reaction Equation Summary Salicylamide and sodium iodide are dissolved in ethanol, and stirred and cooled to 0. After that household bleach was added while stirring vigorously, solution changed from colorless to pale yellow. Sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid were added aswell. Product collected by vacuum filtration and recrystallized from 96% ethanol. IR- and H- NMR-spectrum were taken to determine the location of the I+. I had a yield of 0,7 g (2,66mmol, 18,2%). The iodide’s position is opposite of the –OH group. Salicylamide…

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    This experiment was performed in order to demonstrate the principles of nitration through electrophilic aromatic substitution. It also examined the effects of bromine on an aromatic ring, ortho-para vs. meso directing. The second experiment was performed to compare the reaction rates of electrophilic aromatic bromination with different arenes. Data and Results In the gas chromatogram, there are two large peaks. The first peak at 0.653 minutes with an area of 133,352 uV per second, 31.95% of…

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    Elimination reactions can occur instead of substitution reactions. There are two kinds of elimination reactions: E1 and E2. E1 reactions are 2 step; the leaving group will leave, forming a carbocation and a leaving group anion. Then, a hydrogen on a neighboring carbon will leave; the electrons from the C-H will remain on the C, forming a double bond between the two Carbons that had the LG or H leave. The positive Hydrogen that left will bond with the nucleophile. E2 reactions are one step; the…

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    Nucleophilic substitutions are a fundamental class of reactions in organic chemistry. This type of reaction involves a nucleophile, or an electron rich species, attacking an electrophilic site, or an area that carries a positive or partially positive charge, in order to replace a leaving group. There are two possible mechanisms to account for the attack of the nucleophile; the first occurs in a concerted process, or in one step and the second mechanism occurs in two steps and involves a…

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    When a hydrogen atom of an alkane is replaced by halogens, they become an alkyl halide compound which can also be called haloalkanes. There are two types of reaction within the alkyl halides. When another atom replaces the halide ion, the reaction becomes a substitution reaction, and when the halide ion leaves with another atom or ion, it becomes an elimination reaction (Weldegirma, 2015). The substitution reaction can be divided into either electrophilic substitution or nucleophilic…

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    The experiment outlined by this lab report demonstrated the idea of synthesizing tert-butyl chloride through an SN1 reaction. The SN1 reaction took place with a polar protic solvent taking the place of the leaving group (alcohol) and creating a new replacement bond with the carbocation to form a tertiary chloride structure. The product was then tested for this structure by reacting it with two substances: sodium iodide and silver nitrate. These tests were to demonstrate that if the product…

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    Indole 2a Lab Report

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    83 99 [a] Reaction Conditions: 3a (0.2 mmol), 2a (0.2 mmol), KF (0.4 mmol), catalyst (0.02 mmol) in solvent (0.2 mL) at room temperature for 12 h, unless otherwise specified. [b] Isolated yield. [c] Enantiomeric excess (% ee) was determined by chiral HPLC. A wide range of substituted indoles and imines were then tested under the optimized reaction conditions (1.2 equiv of indole, 2 equiv of KF, and 10 mol% of catalyst in toluene at room temperature for 12 h) to test the generality of the…

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    Sn2 Reaction Lab Report

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    Nucleophilic substitution Nucleophilic substitution reaction is that in which attacking nucleophile replaces a leaving group. Attacking nucleophile: specie with an electron free pair or negative charge and ability to replace already present nucleophile i.e OH- Leaving group: A specie with electron deficiency or positive charge, negative charge i.e Cl- What is SN1 Reaction:- SN1 indicates the unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions. Their rate determining step of the mechanism depends…

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    ideas and methods became more advanced and mathematics began to be involved which started the idea of substitution where each letter was replaced with another. The most general substitution cipher has 26! amount of possibilities- this corresponds to around 10^(23) possibilities (Singh). This extremely high number made it impossible for the message to be cracked in the time it was popular, and even today it would take a computer and entire day to go through all of the possibilities and find the…

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    Nucleophilic Substitution: Preparation of 1-Bromobutane and Alkyl Halide Classification Tests INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the conversion of a primary alcohol to 1-bromobutance with the Sn2 mechanism using sodium bromide and then to characterize the compound with two different alkyl halide tests. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Nucleophilic aliphatic substitution involves chemical reactions where a neutral molecule or an anion called a nucleophile substitutes a…

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