Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Of Salicyamide
Name: Lidia Santiana Palha
Student number: s3333523
Name of demonstrator: H.Helbert
Salicylamide and sodium iodide are dissolved in ethanol, and stirred and cooled to 0.
After that household bleach was added while stirring vigorously, solution changed from
colorless to pale yellow. Sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid were added aswell.
Product collected by vacuum filtration and recrystallized from 96% ethanol. IR- and H-
NMR-spectrum were taken to determine the location of the I+. I had a yield of 0,7 g
(2,66mmol, 18,2%). The iodide’s position is opposite of the –OH group.
This experiment was performed in order to demonstrate the principles of nitration through electrophilic aromatic substitution. It also examined the effects of bromine on an aromatic ring, ortho-para vs. meso directing. The second experiment was performed to compare the reaction rates of electrophilic aromatic bromination with different arenes.
Data and Results
In the gas chromatogram, there are two large peaks. The first peak at 0.653 minutes with an area of 133,352 uV per second, 31.95% of…
Elimination reactions can occur instead of substitution reactions. There are two kinds of elimination reactions: E1 and E2. E1 reactions are 2 step; the leaving group will leave, forming a carbocation and a leaving group anion. Then, a hydrogen on a neighboring carbon will leave; the electrons from the C-H will remain on the C, forming a double bond between the two Carbons that had the LG or H leave. The positive Hydrogen that left will bond with the nucleophile. E2 reactions are one step; the…
Nucleophilic substitutions are a fundamental class of reactions in organic chemistry. This type of reaction involves a nucleophile, or an electron rich species, attacking an electrophilic site, or an area that carries a positive or partially positive charge, in order to replace a leaving group. There are two possible mechanisms to account for the attack of the nucleophile; the first occurs in a concerted process, or in one step and the second mechanism occurs in two steps and involves a…
[a] Reaction Conditions: 3a (0.2 mmol), 2a (0.2 mmol), KF (0.4 mmol), catalyst (0.02 mmol) in solvent (0.2 mL) at room temperature for 12 h, unless otherwise specified. [b] Isolated yield. [c] Enantiomeric excess (% ee) was determined by chiral HPLC.
A wide range of substituted indoles and imines were then tested under the optimized reaction conditions (1.2 equiv of indole, 2 equiv of KF, and 10 mol% of catalyst in toluene at room temperature for 12 h) to test the generality of the…
Nucleophilic substitution reaction is that in which attacking nucleophile replaces a leaving group.
Attacking nucleophile: specie with an electron free pair or negative charge and ability to replace already present nucleophile i.e OH-
Leaving group: A specie with electron deficiency or positive charge, negative charge i.e Cl-
What is SN1 Reaction:-
SN1 indicates the unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions. Their rate determining step of the mechanism depends…
ideas and methods became more advanced and mathematics began to be involved which started the idea of substitution where each letter was replaced with another. The most general substitution cipher has 26! amount of possibilities- this corresponds to around 10^(23) possibilities (Singh). This extremely high number made it impossible for the message to be cracked in the time it was popular, and even today it would take a computer and entire day to go through all of the possibilities and find the…
by natural ecosystems and 28% have been altered by human activities for things like farming and living areas. Afterward it went into detail about how coastal ecosystems are being impacted by the development of urban, industrial and agricultural systems. Human activities have modified coastal habitats and shorelines; overexploited coastal ecosystem services; exacerbated invasive species; and fostered conservation of coastal and marine biodiversity. In order to continue to derive beneficial…
This experiment involved an electrophilic aromatic substitution of bromobenzene. Two products were formed: 4-nitrobromobenzene (4-NBB) and 2-nitrobromobenzene (2-NBB). Utilizing column chromatography and recrystallization, separation and purification of the two products was obtained. The mass of 4-NBB, the para product, was 1.57 grams, while the mass of 2-NBB, the ortho product, was 0.80 grams. The para product was expected to have the higher yield, since it is more stable and…
This suggests that the product made was Meta-Methyl nitrobenzoate even if it has little different melting point from the literature melting point which is 7880°C. Conclusion/Discussion: During the electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction between methyl benzoate and a nitrating solution of sulfuric and nitric acids, the Meta-Methyl nitrobenzoate product was obtained based on the product melting point range. Percent yield of the crude 56.42% and the percent yield of the recrystallized product…