Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon that is represented with the formula C6H6. It was discovered in 1825 by a British scientist, Michael Faraday, who extracted it from crude oil by applying pressure, and named it “Bicarburet of hydrogen”. However, its chemical synthesis did not start until in 1843, Charles Mansfield, discovered a method to extract benzene from coal tar.
Since its industrialization, benzene is produced and used in many industrial processes. Today, plastics, resins, dyes, implies the generation of benzene as intermediate. Also, chemical synthesis of phenol, cyclohexane, ethylbenzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons generates benzene as part of their production. In 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency of USA estimates…
Benzene and leukemia
Columbia Southern University
Benzene is a hydrocarbon that is highly flammable. The hydrocarbon is used in many industrial processes. Statistics indicate that it is among the top 20 chemicals that are widely used in different industries across the world. The substance has wide application in oil and gas industry. As a matter of fact, it is used in making various types of lubricants. Benzene can be formed through natural processes such volcano…
Benzene, rings are very prevalent in many products that are used on a daily biases by humans, and compounds that contain benzene are often referred to as being aromatic. Benzene has characteristics that differ from many compounds causing it to react differently when mixed with certain compounds. Although benzene has three double bonds, it does not react like a normal alkene in terms of addition reactions. For example, when bromine reacts with a simple carbon-carbon double bond it forms dibromo.…
grams, while the mass of 2-NBB, the ortho product, was 0.80 grams. The para product was expected to have the higher yield, since it is more stable and consequently harder to break down throughout the experiment.
Nitration, Bromobenzene, Substitution, 4-nitrobromobenzene, 2-nitrobromobenzene, Column Chromatography, Infrared spectrum, Thin-Layer Chromatography.
This experiment is performed to synthesize 4-nitrobromobenzene and 2-nitrobromobenzene, which is best…
For the next two weeks, the objective of this lab is to explore EAS reactions. These reactions are possible spots on a benzene ring for substituting electrophiles due to compounds that are already on the ring. There are three types of directing substituents. The first one is a para-director which guides the second substituent on the opposite side of the benzene ring. The second director, which corresponds with para-directors, is the ortho-director. These directors place the group of atoms on the…
2000 tons of chlorobenzene, 200 tons of dioxin-contaminated trichlorophenol, 2400 tons of organic sulfur compounds (e.g., lauryl mercaptans), 2400 tons benzylchlorides and 2000 tons sodium sulfide/sulfhydrates” among others were been buried in the love canal over a ten year period. (Gensburg, et al. 2009, p 209; Kim, 1981 p.59).
These waste were originally disposed as solids and liquids in metallic drums and non-metallic containers. Also, municipal waste were disposed in the dumpsite (Kim, 1981…
Anisole is activating. The reason it is considered to be activating is because of the electron pairs on the ether molecule. Furthermore, the electrons activate the benzene ring which makes it more reactive. On the other hand, if benzoic acid replaced anisole in the experiment, it would act as a deactivating group. Carboxylic acid pulls electrons from the benzene ring acting as a withdrawing group which causes a slower reaction with the increase of stability and decrease in reactivity due to…
are almost pure after distillation. The reaction is smooth and the yield is generally good.
In a 2-l. three-necked, round-bottomed flask fitted with a mechanical stirrer and two reflux condensers place 6.8 g of succinic anhydride and 35 g. of dry benzene.
Start the stirrer and 20 g of powdered, anhydrous aluminum chloride all at once.
Reflux it in an oil bath with stirring, for half an hour.
Cool it and add 30 mL of water slowly added from a dropping funnel inserted…
Ancient civilizations began dying hair through use of plant pigments that many cultures continue to use today. In Western culture, hair dye usage has increased steadily from the 1960s, and is now widely popular, as well as socially accepted. Despite the significant percentage of the human population that uses hair dyes on a regular basis very little research has been done on the effects of the dye on human health (Nohynek 2010). What studies have been conducted indicate that significant…
gasoline-like or petroleum-like
Molecular Weight: 86.18 g/mole
Color: clear colorless
Boiling Point: 68°C
Melting Point: -95°C
Vapor Pressure: 17.3 kPa
Vapor Density: 2.97
Odor Threshold: 130 ppm
Solubility: soluble in diethyl ether, acetone and insoluble in cold and hot water
Hazards: This compound can be extremely dangerous if it comes into contact with one’s skin, eyes or if it is ingested or inhaled.
Ethyl Acetate: -
Physical Property: liquid
Odor: ethereal, fruity