Boiling point

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    The boiling point of an organic compound determines its structural features and physical properties of the compound, which helps us to name the characteristics. Boiling point defined as the “temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is the same as the pressure of the atmosphere on the liquid surface”. (Mahaffy, P, Bucat, B, Tasker, R, Kotz, J, Treichel, P, Weaver, G, McMurry, J 2011). The boiling point 1-hexanol, 2-hexanone, 1-pentanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol are represented in the chart above as they are approximately; 157ºC, 127.6ºC , between 137 to 139ºC and 131.1ºC respectively. The difference in the general trends of the molecules affects on the boiling point; the molecular surface area of the compound influence by the strength…

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    Boiling Point Lab

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    was to determine the relationships between boiling point and molecular structure. To do this we used four different chemicals, all with the same molecule but just with different subscripts. To preform this experiment, we were required to use a hot plate, water bath, alcohols, ketones, and alkalines, a test tube, capillaries, and a test tube cap. Once the water was boiling, we lowered the test tube into the water and waited until the chemical began to boil. Once the chemical began to boil we…

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    Simple Distillation Essay

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    Distillation, described from About Education, is the process of separating liquids with 2 different boiling points. Distillating requires heating and cooling of liquid components to eventually purify the mixtures. In distillation, heat is added to vaporize the liquid with the lower boiling point and this vapor gas bubble is condensed back into its liquid form, where it is then collected in a receiving flask or a graduated cylinder. Multiple distillations and collections, depending on the types…

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    This indicates that chemicals with higher boiling points will have longer retention times than chemicals with low boiling points. With that thought in mind and based on the data, it is clear to say that the major products that were produced with toluene, acetophenone, and nitric acid were indicated by peaks 4 and 5 on the toluene GC spectrum. These chemicals were o-nitrotoluene and p-nitrotoluene. This was determined by first finding the literature values of all the reactants’ and products’…

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    This is the consequence of a decrease in the specific heat capacity of the solution compared to pure water. The specific heat capacity drops because the specific heat is lower for salt. Hence, when water is mixed with salt the specific heat value drops. In other words, it takes less energy to raise the temperature of the salt water by 1K than pure water. This means that the salt water heats up faster and eventually gets to its boiling point first. The heat capacity of NaCl has been found to be…

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    ____ 13. Look at the four containers below. A B C D Which drawing shows what happens to the particles in water when the temperature of the water reaches 100°C? A The particles stay close together. B The particles continue to glide past each other. C The particles move far apart. D The particles are destroyed. ____ 14. The melting point of water is 0°C. Its boiling point is 100°C. The thermometers show the temperature of four samples of water. Which statement is true? A Only sample B is…

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    First off, water has a very high boiling point, one hundred degrees Celsius, relative to its small molecular weight at roughly eighteen grams. Water requires more energy to break hydrogen bonds before it can boil. Freezing works the same way as boiling, but in reverse since it is going to colder temperatures, zero degrees Celsius to freeze, rather than hotter. These extremes in freezing and boiling points allow the molecules to freeze or boil very slowly. Another unique property of water is…

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    the two unknown volatile liquids. Once the unknown mixture was successfully fractioned, gas chromatography was used to help determine the identity of the two unknown liquids. Fractional distillation and simple distillation both take advantage of two major physical properties to separate liquids. Specifically, boiling point differences and the identity of the vapor phase of mixtures. However, one must utilize the correct distillation based on the conditions presented. If a mixture of volatile…

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    Simple distillation was used for a liquid whose boiling points is 25 degrees Celsius over the other liquid, whereas fractional distillation is used for liquids with boiling points that are closer than 25 degrees Celsius apart. To obtain the highest percent ethanol, fraction distillation is proven to be the most effective. Because the 2 liquids have a boiling point difference of about 25 degrees Celsius, we used both simple and fractional distillation to remove the ethanol from the water.…

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    Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to collect three different fractions of a mixture of hexane and toluene at differing temperatures. From there, the fractions would be measured via gas chromatography to discover the percent composition of hexane and toluene in each fraction with the ultimate goal of having one fraction with mostly hexane, one with mostly toluene, and one with an even mixture of the two. Along with this, there is also the goal of redistilling one of the fractions in…

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