Fractional Distillation And Gas Chromatography Lab Report

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The purpose of experiment 1, fractional distillation and gas chromatography, was to separate an unknown organic mixture into two liquids. The primary process of separation was fractional distillation, which utilizes the physical properties of the two unknown volatile liquids. Once the unknown mixture was successfully fractioned, gas chromatography was used to help determine the identity of the two unknown liquids.
Fractional distillation and simple distillation both take advantage of two major physical properties to separate liquids. Specifically, boiling point differences and the identity of the vapor phase of mixtures. However, one must utilize the correct distillation based on the conditions presented. If a mixture of volatile
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As this condensate mixes with rising vapor and as the cycle undergoes, the vapor that rises should contain increasing amounts of this more volatile liquid. Therefore, leaving the less volatile liquid in the distillation flask.
The temperature will not rise at the thermometer while the more volatile liquid is being fractioned because the main vapor that reaches this portion of the column should consist mainly of the lower boiling point liquid which should remain consistent until the vapor composition begins to change to that of the high boiling point liquid. Finally, once all of the more volatile liquid has been fractioned, the temperature will increase to that of the boiling point of the lower volatile liquid and the vapor that rises should primarily consist of the
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Cyclohexane was the more volatile liquid collected in fraction A. It is a more volatile compound compared to Toluene due to its structure, which compared to Toluene does not contain any double bonds nor does it have any dipole moments. Thus with a lower molecular weight and little to no intermolecular forces will boil at a lower temperature than Toluene. Toluene processes double bonds that result in a dipole moment at the methyl group increasing intermolecular forces and thus required more kinetic energy, heat, to boil. The polarity generated by the benzene ring is also an important concept in the separation during gas chromatography. Finally, Toluene has a slightly higher molecular weight than

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