Solvent

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    Universal Solvent Physics

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    Startling Physics Of The Universal Solvent... " There isn't anything softer and weaker than water, and nonetheless there isn't anything better for assaulting arduous and rugged things." We are all cognizant of the fact that 65% of our bodies and 75% of earth is composed of water and also are familiar to some of its properties yet it stands out to be intensely mysterious. Several of its properties are so strange that even to this day they elude scientific apprehension. • Mpemba Effect: A logical being might presume that hot water would take longer time to drop down to 0 degree centigrade and freeze than the one at room temperature or cold water. Surprisingly, it is observed that hot water freezes faster than a cold water when subjected to same subzero environment. No one knows why.…

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    process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight alcohols, especially ethanol, from aqueous mixtures  The feed mixture contains alcohol and water with an extractive solvent comprising a substituted and unsubstituted phenol having 6 carbon atoms and alcohol containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms.  In the process the upper stream contains water with minimum amount of solvent that is 99.9% and the bottom stream contains alcohol with minimum amount of water.  The temperature of the process is…

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    Lipid Extraction Essay

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    the wet microalgae is the low extraction efficiency, because of the immiscibility of nonpolar organic solvents with water contained in wet microalgae {Yoo, 2012 #31} {Kim, 2013 #118}. Traditional method for lipid extraction from dry biomass uses a co-solvent system, which consist of a non-polar solvent and polar solvent {Halim, 2012 #7} {Kim, 2013 #118}. When the co-solvent system is directly applied to wet microalgal biomass, the microalgal cells tend to stay in the hydrophilic phase because of…

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    Thin Layer Chromatography

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    funnel was then filled with 10mL of 3M NaOH and 10 mL of the dichloromethane. The funnel was capped and flipped upside-down while the lid was held. The solvent was mixed inside the separation funnel for a couple…

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    Molecules like cyclosporine that are non-ionisable, lipophilic and non-polar are challenging to formulate due to their low solubility and no effect of pH on solubility, and they are also solubilised in non-aqueous solutions composed entirely of organic solvents. The combination of polyoxyethylated castor oil and ethanol that are water miscible surfactants and solvents can be used to solubilise the non-polar active ingredient, cyclosporine. Therefore, the excipients are appropriate for the…

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    Analysis Of A HPLC Pump

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    The instrumentation of a HPLC apparatus is as shown in the diagram above. A HPLC apparatus is including a solvent reservoir, degasser, pump, injector, HPLC column, detector and data collection device. Solvent reservoir The solvent reservoir is usually a glassware or reagent bottle which contained the analytic sample. It is located at the upper part of the HPLC. It is also known as mobile phase reservoir since the sample will be moved. The flowing of the sample is depends on gravitational…

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    Rf values were calculated for the spots using Equation 1. (The distance traveled by each spot was measured as the distance between the starting point of the spot and its center of concentration in its final position; the distance traveled by the solvent was measured from the starting line of the spots to the final position of the solvent front.) Separation of compounds by TLC, such as that observed in this experiment, occurs because the compounds are partitioned between the stationary phase…

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    Chromatography Lab

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    components of chromatography are the adsorbent and the eluent. Adsorbents are usually solid materials that will attract and adsorb the materials to be separated. The eluent is the solvent, which carries the materials to be separated through the adsorbent. After being separated we can calculate the Rate of flow, which is generally known as Rate Values, meaning the distance traveled along the chromatography paper. Each color has its own rate of flow so having a rate of flow can help identify the…

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    Thin-Layer Chromatography Lab 11/12/14 Beginning Question To what extent does the polarity of a substance affect the distance it travels during TLC using water as the solvent? Safety Concerns The substances used during the TLC process could possibly be dangerous, so it would be best to avoid getting them on the hands. If one were to accidentally spill the water used in the process onto the floor, a slipping hazard could occur. Data Dye Solvent Front (cm) Spot (cm) R…

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    and boiling point were obtained and compared to the theoretical values. Theory Chemical substances can be identified through investigation of their chemical and physical properties and then comparing the experimental values to the standard values. Physical properties do not change the chemical composition of the substance. Physical properties include; density, boiling point, and solubility, etc. The density of a substance is the ratio of the mass of the substance to its volume. Density (ρ) =…

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