Separation Of Xylene Essay

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A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight alcohols, especially ethanol, from aqueous mixtures
 The feed mixture contains alcohol and water with an extractive solvent comprising a substituted and unsubstituted phenol having 6 carbon atoms and alcohol containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms.
 In the process the upper stream contains water with minimum amount of solvent that is 99.9% and the bottom stream contains alcohol with minimum amount of water.  The temperature of the process is between 180 to 350 C.Here the alcohol is obtained at bottom product at 200-210 C and the whole process is carried out at atmospheric pressure.
The results obtained in this process were 20-60 wt% alcohol and 40-80 wt% water. In this process there is a
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 The operating pressure is 0.3kg/cm2

and 4.3 kg/cm2

in the second column.
 All isomers of xylene was recovered from the column and were collected. The results obtained were 97 mole% benzene, 96 mole% toluene and 98 mole% xylene. In this process separation of acetonitrile from waste solvent acetonitrile is carried out.  The impurity contains isopropyl acetate, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, oxazole. The temperature of the process is between 140 to 170°F and the pressure of the process is 1.26 kg/cm2

 The concentration level of the organic impurities in the waste solvent acetonitrile is usually less than 25% with no single organic component found in greater than 2 to 10 wt % concentration.The results obtained from this process 85%.

Purified methanol is produced by distilling a water methanol mixture in (a) a first column from which is taken a product methanol stream at an upper level, weakly aqueous methanol as a side stream and water as bottoms and (b) a second column in which that weakly aqueous methanol is separated into an overhead product stream and aqueous methanol bottoms.
 The first column may be preceded by a preliminary volatiles-removal
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Water content : The American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM) standard method D95 was used from ensuring the water content of the oily sludge. The oily sludge was heated with benzene(solvent) which co-distilled with the water in the sample in a fume cupboard .Condensed solvent and water were continuously separate and the water settled as the bottom layer.
The condensed liquid containing water and hydrocarbon was transferred to a graduated cylinder. A water layer with higher density was at the bottom of the cylinder. The volume of the water was then used in calculating the water content in the sample (using the density of water of 1g/cm3

Volatile hydrocarbon content: A known mass of sample was put in an oven (with ventilation) at 105°C for 24 hours. The reduction in mass indicated the moisture and light hydrocarbon content in the sludge.
Fuel recovery from waste oily sludge using solvent Extraction. Process Safety and
Environmental Protection 88 (2010) 318–326. Essam A.H. Zubaidy, Dana M. Abouelnasr
Solvent extraction was used to recover oil from waste sludge generated from the

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