Distillation Lab Report

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Distillation, described from About Education, is the process of separating liquids with 2 different boiling points. Distillating requires heating and cooling of liquid components to eventually purify the mixtures. In distillation, heat is added to vaporize the liquid with the lower boiling point and this vapor gas bubble is condensed back into its liquid form, where it is then collected in a receiving flask or a graduated cylinder. Multiple distillations and collections, depending on the types of distillation techniques, yields distinct, separated liquids.

The instruments used in the distillation apparatus is vital to purifying the liquid mixtures, as stated from Zubrick. Here, the distilling flask contains the liquid mixtures and it rest
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This was noted from when it condensed onto the thermometer as droplets. At this point, the boiling point of ethanol was determined. The gas particles continued to rise and traveled through the condenser tube, where it condensed into a liquid and was collected inside a graduated cylinder. The distilling temperature was the temperature at which the first droplet fell into the graduated cylinder. By monitoring the variac, the temperature was regulated around ethanol’s bp of 78 degrees and this ensured that the vapors were as pure as possible and that mixing of ethanol and water was minimized. However, the distillate that was collected could not be 100% ethanol because of the azeotropes that ethanol and water form that would have been in the final …show more content…
Zubrick defines forerun as any liquid running into the receiving flask or cylinder before the boiling point of the volatile liquid has been reached. In Simple Distillation, no forerun was observed thus the receiving instrument did not need to be changed. If the temperature recorded did not match with the approximate boiling point of ethanol from when the liquid boiled, such as if the thermometer read incredibly below 78 degrees celsius, than this temperature was most likely the atmospheric temperature.

Fractional Distillation differs from Simple due to the fractional column that is filled with beads and cylinders that the vapor gas of ethanol climb through first before reaching the three way adapter, the thermometer, and the condenser tube. Chem Helper states that these beads act as theoretical plates, where they maximize the surface area that the gas particles of ethanol condense on and re-evaporate, ensuring that the fractions or liquid components in the mixture, ethanol and water, are separated well. Ultimately, they allow for better separation of liquids and purer distillates than in Simple

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