Alkyl

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    Indole 2a Lab Report

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    ring, all α-amido sulfones 3 as the imine precursors tested in this study smoothly converted to the corresponding Friedel-Crafts products 4a–4p with high yields and excellent ees after 12 h. Notably, the sterically demanding 1-naphthyl substituted amido sulfone 3b also smoothly converted to the corresponding Friedel-Crafts product 3b in 98% yield with 99% ee. Heteroaromatic substrates such as 2-furanyl (3l) and 3-thienyl (3m) also afforded almost quantitative yields and excellent ees. In addition, various aliphatic substrates 3n–3p were also explored for this reaction. To our delight, the reaction turned out to be highly tolerant to the ene-carbamate[10] formation, and essentially all the investigated alkyl chain substituted substrates including highly challenging primary alkyl substituted substrates afforded good to excellent chemical yields and enantioselectivities (see 4n–4p in Scheme 2). Furthermore, as shown in Scheme 3, this reaction was also found to be very general with respect to indoles 2. The enantioselectivity was found to be insensitive to the electronic and steric nature of the indole ring (Scheme 3). In all the cases, almost perfect ees (98–99% ee) were achieved under the optimized catalytic conditions. Gratifyingly, the substrate scope was also successfully extended to 4,7-dihydroindoles, enabling access to chiral 2-indolyl methanamine derivatives which are present in many biologically active natural and unnatural compounds.[11] Of note, because of…

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    are imperative for medicines that ameliorate the nasal and eye. These salts are very simple to make but can become very aggressive when synthesizing. Benzalknoium salts function by having an alkyl chain…

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    Nucleophilic substitutions are a fundamental class of reactions in organic chemistry. This type of reaction involves a nucleophile, or an electron rich species, attacking an electrophilic site, or an area that carries a positive or partially positive charge, in order to replace a leaving group. There are two possible mechanisms to account for the attack of the nucleophile; the first occurs in a concerted process, or in one step and the second mechanism occurs in two steps and involves a…

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    Alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (alkyl-PACs) are the major aromatic constituent of total PAH in crude oil and originated from incomplete combustion process. Whereas benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a well-known human carcinogen, dibenzothiophene (DBT) and retene (Ret) are not; however, all three compounds are important environmental pollutants. Their toxicity is not yet characterized. In this study, we used BaP (parent PAH), DBT and Ret (alkyl-PACs) to elucidate the mechanism of neurotoxicity…

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    secondary and secondary molecules to tertiary. In order to best improve this procedure, it would be beneficial to add more than 4 drops of the alkyl halides to the sodium iodide in acetone solution in order to better visualize a precipitate. Another improvement for this procedure would be to use a better solvent such as sodium tosylate to react each molecule with. Using tosylate instead of iodine would work better because tosylate is a better leaving group than iodine. Additionally, aluminum…

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    2-Bromobutane Lab Report

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    accept a pair of electrons. Leaving groups are the atom or ion that leaves the alkyl halide during the SN2 reaction. Protic solvents are solvents that contain an “OH” or “NH” group. They are not very effective in SN2…

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    Nucleophilic Substitution: Preparation of 1-Bromobutane and Alkyl Halide Classification Tests INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the conversion of a primary alcohol to 1-bromobutance with the Sn2 mechanism using sodium bromide and then to characterize the compound with two different alkyl halide tests. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Nucleophilic aliphatic substitution involves chemical reactions where a neutral molecule or an anion called a nucleophile substitutes a…

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    Main Group Elements Organometallic Compounds: The compounds which contain at least one direct metal to carbon covalent bond are known as organometallic compounds many of these are thermodynamically unstable and are pyrophoric. The meta may belongs to main group, transition metal, f group metal or a metalloid i.e. selenium, boron, arsenic, silicon, antimony, germanium, and tellurium and the carbon moiety may be alkyl, alkene, alkyne, carbonyl, cyclic, heterocyclic or aromatic.1 Historical…

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    When a hydrogen atom of an alkane is replaced by halogens, they become an alkyl halide compound which can also be called haloalkanes. There are two types of reaction within the alkyl halides. When another atom replaces the halide ion, the reaction becomes a substitution reaction, and when the halide ion leaves with another atom or ion, it becomes an elimination reaction (Weldegirma, 2015). The substitution reaction can be divided into either electrophilic substitution or nucleophilic…

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    Markovnikov’s rule sheds light on the regioselectivity of the two ends of a C=C double bond of an alkene when they are not identical. It is used to predict the site of formation of the hydrogen atom and the hydroxyl group that forms as a result of deprotonation by the bisulfate ion. The reaction is regioselective because it yields regioisomers because it preferences a certain site of formation more than the other because that site will yield more stability. To elaborate, Markovnikov’s rule…

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