Nucleophilic substitution

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  • Nucleophilic Substitution Lab Report

    Nucleophilic substitutions are a fundamental class of reactions in organic chemistry. This type of reaction involves a nucleophile, or an electron rich species, attacking an electrophilic site, or an area that carries a positive or partially positive charge, in order to replace a leaving group. There are two possible mechanisms to account for the attack of the nucleophile; the first occurs in a concerted process, or in one step and the second mechanism occurs in two steps and involves a carbocation intermediate. As the nucleophile is attacking in the concerted process, the leaving group is leaving, thus the atom does not break the octet rule. This type of reaction, known as an SN2 reaction, has a rate that is dependent on both the concentration of the substrate in addition to the concentration of the nucleophile. Given that the nucleophile must attack while the leaving group is still attached, steric hindrance plays a large role in determining if the reaction will occur. This leads to a primary or methyl substrate being favored for SN2 reactions. On the other hand, a nucleophilic substitution reaction can also occur in a stepwise matter, known as an SN1 mechanism. First, a loss of the leaving group would occur, forming a carbocation intermediate, which is then attacked by the nucleophile. Given that this reaction forms the carbocation intermediate, steric hindrance is not a factor so this mechanism is preferable on a tertiary substrate. However, the rate of this reaction is…

    Words: 1561 - Pages: 7
  • Sn2-Butanol-2-Methylbutane Lab Report

    Elimination reactions can occur instead of substitution reactions. There are two kinds of elimination reactions: E1 and E2. E1 reactions are 2 step; the leaving group will leave, forming a carbocation and a leaving group anion. Then, a hydrogen on a neighboring carbon will leave; the electrons from the C-H will remain on the C, forming a double bond between the two Carbons that had the LG or H leave. The positive Hydrogen that left will bond with the nucleophile. E2 reactions are one step; the…

    Words: 995 - Pages: 4
  • Sn2 Reaction Lab Report

    Nucleophilic substitution Nucleophilic substitution reaction is that in which attacking nucleophile replaces a leaving group. Attacking nucleophile: specie with an electron free pair or negative charge and ability to replace already present nucleophile i.e OH- Leaving group: A specie with electron deficiency or positive charge, negative charge i.e Cl- What is SN1 Reaction:- SN1 indicates the unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions. Their rate determining step of the mechanism depends…

    Words: 747 - Pages: 3
  • Experiment 4: Kinetics Of Nucleophilic Substitutions

    Experiment 4: Kinetics of Nucleophilic Substitutions 1. Determine the effect of varying [OH-] on the rate of the reaction. To do this, you should complete the following table: Experiment [tBuCl]0 (M) [OH-]0 (M) Time (s) Reaction rate (M/s) Rate constant (s-1) 1 0.03 0.003 65 4.89 · 10-5 1.62 · 10-3 2 0.03 0.006 213 3.15 · 10-5 1.05 · 10-3 3 0.03 0.009 362 2.96 · 10-5 9.85 · 10-4 What is the dependence of [OH-] on the rate law? The effect of the increased or…

    Words: 1172 - Pages: 5
  • Nitration Of Bromobenzene Lab Report

    This experiment was performed in order to demonstrate the principles of nitration through electrophilic aromatic substitution. It also examined the effects of bromine on an aromatic ring, ortho-para vs. meso directing. The second experiment was performed to compare the reaction rates of electrophilic aromatic bromination with different arenes. Data and Results In the gas chromatogram, there are two large peaks. The first peak at 0.653 minutes with an area of 133,352 uV per second, 31.95% of…

    Words: 731 - Pages: 3
  • Cryptography: The Invasion Of Privacy

    ideas and methods became more advanced and mathematics began to be involved which started the idea of substitution where each letter was replaced with another. The most general substitution cipher has 26! amount of possibilities- this corresponds to around 10^(23) possibilities (Singh). This extremely high number made it impossible for the message to be cracked in the time it was popular, and even today it would take a computer and entire day to go through all of the possibilities and find the…

    Words: 1328 - Pages: 6
  • Gabriel Amine Vs Pyrrole Lab Report

    (Preparation of 1o amines) The Gabriel Amine synthesis is a three-step organic reaction that converts an alkyl halide to a primary amine. The advantage offered by Gabriel Amine synthesis is that it avoids poly-alkylation. Step 1: acid-base reaction. The acidic phthalimide molecule gets deprotonated by a strong base. The strength of an acid depends on the stability of the conjugate base. The negative charge on the conjugate base of phthalimide is delocalised over three highly electronegative…

    Words: 1349 - Pages: 6
  • Sn2 Reaction Essay

    dashed line) that are attached to the + carbon atom are turned inside out. If the starting material has Br on the right side of the + carbon atom, the final product will have OH on the left side of the + carbon atom and vice versa.  Comment: There is only one hump for the energy profile of an SN2 reaction. As we shall see later, there are two humps for the energy profile of an SN1 reaction. One easy way to recall is to remember that SN2 has 1 hump and SN1 has 2 humps.…

    Words: 1119 - Pages: 5
  • Synthesis Of 6-Deoxycellulose Derivatives Lab Report

    derivatives with DSamino 0.4-0.6 by nucleophilic displacement of cellulose tosylates (DSTos 0.74 and 1.29) with a racemic mixture of 1-phenylethylamine under homogeneous conditions, in DMF/H2O82, scheme 30. The optical properties of these deoxyamino cellulose derivatives was studied. A regioselective synthesis of 6-amino-6-deoxycellulose, 6-N-sulfonated, and 6-N-carboxymethylated deoxycellulose were described by C. Liu et. al, by replacement of the C-6 tosyl groups by azide groups, that…

    Words: 911 - Pages: 4
  • Paracetamol Lab Report

    These two steps were already carried out and 4 amino-phenol was the amine used in the first part of this experiment. 4 amino phenol and acetic anhydride undergo a nucleophilic addition-elimination reaction. A reaction mechanism is a step-by-step process when reactant molecules change in their geometry in order to produce new products. This occurs due to omission or addition of reagents, where bonds are broken down to form new ones4. 4 amino-phenol contains two functional groups, an OH and a NH2…

    Words: 651 - Pages: 3
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