Aromatic hydrocarbon

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  • Indole 2a Lab Report

    83 99 [a] Reaction Conditions: 3a (0.2 mmol), 2a (0.2 mmol), KF (0.4 mmol), catalyst (0.02 mmol) in solvent (0.2 mL) at room temperature for 12 h, unless otherwise specified. [b] Isolated yield. [c] Enantiomeric excess (% ee) was determined by chiral HPLC. A wide range of substituted indoles and imines were then tested under the optimized reaction conditions (1.2 equiv of indole, 2 equiv of KF, and 10 mol% of catalyst in toluene at room temperature for 12 h) to test the generality of the reaction, and the results are summarized in Schemes 2 and 3. This catalytic condition was found to be general with α-amido sulfones 3 bearing different substituents (Scheme 2). Regardless of the electronic and steric nature of the substituents on the aromatic ring, all α-amido sulfones 3 as the imine precursors tested in this study smoothly converted to the corresponding Friedel-Crafts products 4a–4p with high yields and excellent ees after 12 h. Notably, the sterically demanding 1-naphthyl substituted amido sulfone 3b also smoothly converted to the corresponding Friedel-Crafts product 3b in 98% yield with 99% ee. Heteroaromatic substrates such as 2-furanyl (3l) and 3-thienyl (3m) also afforded almost quantitative yields and excellent ees. In addition, various aliphatic substrates 3n–3p were also explored for this reaction. To our delight, the reaction turned out to be highly tolerant to the ene-carbamate[10] formation, and essentially all the investigated alkyl chain substituted substrates…

    Words: 868 - Pages: 4
  • Scale And Cross-Scale Dynamics

    biodiversity. In order to continue to derive beneficial social, economic and environmental coastal ecosystem services at local, regional and global scales human society must elevate and integrate this multilevel task into their governance. Impact of The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Bioavailable Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons discussed how a lethal explosion at the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig located near the Louisiana coast led to the largest marine oil spill in United States history.…

    Words: 1541 - Pages: 7
  • The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Crude Oil

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of various organic compounds, comprising of different hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds (Simanzhenkov and Idem, 2003). In addition to carbon and hydrogen, petroleum might contain sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen, and metals such as nickel, vanadium, iron, and copper. Crude oil physical and chemical compositions vary with location, depth and age (Rahimi and Gentzis, 2006). Physical composition of crude oil varies from black liquids of high viscosity to…

    Words: 821 - Pages: 4
  • Nitration Of Bromobenzene Lab Report

    This experiment was performed in order to demonstrate the principles of nitration through electrophilic aromatic substitution. It also examined the effects of bromine on an aromatic ring, ortho-para vs. meso directing. The second experiment was performed to compare the reaction rates of electrophilic aromatic bromination with different arenes. Data and Results In the gas chromatogram, there are two large peaks. The first peak at 0.653 minutes with an area of 133,352 uV per second, 31.95% of…

    Words: 731 - Pages: 3
  • Polyethylene Case Study

    P&G brought in Polypropylene to replace Polyethylene for the back sheet from the chemical industry. Two American chemists working for Phillips Petroleum of the Netherlands, Paul Hogan and Robert Banks, invented the material in 1950’s. Polypropylene is similar to its ancestor, polyethylene, and shares polyethylene's low cost, but it is much more robust and can be blow moulded. More importantly, it provides a cloth like look and a softer and natural feel that mothers demanded. It provided the…

    Words: 779 - Pages: 4
  • Farnham Proposal

    Guess and Farnham discuss the demand curve in relation to whether a proposed program will be favored and affect the consumers’ willingness to purchase the output of the program. Willingness to pay issues complicate cost-benefit analysis and through surveying and hypothetical situations, the contingent valuation method is used. This method “is widely used in environmental areas, particularly to evaluate willingness to pay for nonuse or existence values of environmental goods” (Guess 325) and…

    Words: 787 - Pages: 4
  • Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Case Study

    CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND 1.1 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Oil production is differentiated into three stages: primary, secondary and tertiary, which is also known as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Primary oil recovery is restricted to hydrocarbons that naturally produced to the surface, or those that utilization artificial lifts, for example, pump jacks. The secondary recovery utilizes water and gas injection, dislodging the oil and driving it to the surface. US Department of Energy stated that by using…

    Words: 1503 - Pages: 7
  • Can Biodiesel Oil Replace Fossil Fuel In The Future?

    Since the invention of modern technologies, oil is one of the most important source in this world. This is due to its variety kind of usage that will not only contribute to people but also towards any country that uses this source. For now, fossil fuel is widely being used as the primary oil in a lot of sectors such as transportation, production and manufacturing. As for that, we can conclude that fossil fuel is very important towards enhancing the growth of economy but with all of the…

    Words: 1966 - Pages: 8
  • Petroleum Geology Essay

    The study of movements, formation, and occurrence in hydrocarbon fuels is petroleum geology. Without geologists in this field, we would not be able to locate or extract oil from the earth. Petroleum geology has seven elements that are crucial for evaluation. Each element has a role in sedimentary basins. (was thinking of deleting this paragraph, took it from your outline) Crude oil, which is known as Petroleum, is essentially a fossil fuel. The fossil fuel is created over millions of years by…

    Words: 1072 - Pages: 4
  • Benzene And Leukemia Case Study

    Benzene and leukemia Melonie Brown Columbia Southern University Introduction Benzene is a hydrocarbon that is highly flammable. The hydrocarbon is used in many industrial processes. Statistics indicate that it is among the top 20 chemicals that are widely used in different industries across the world. The substance has wide application in oil and gas industry. As a matter of fact, it is used in making various types of lubricants. Benzene can be formed through natural processes such volcano…

    Words: 1006 - Pages: 5
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