Scale And Cross-Scale Dynamics

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These case studies are all correlated into one huge complex scale, the article Scale and cross-scale dynamics: governance and information in a multilevel world sums up all the articles. It illustrated evidence that dynamic linkages across levels are more successful in assessing problems and finding solutions that are more politically and ecologically sustainable. Which can be associated with all the articles because in some way each issue that they addressed was involved in different elaborate levels to assess and solve their problems.
The following papers were concentrated the elaborate cross-scale dynamics of coastal regions and impacts on PAH’s from oil spills. The Coasts of Our World: Ecological, Economic and Social Importance integrated
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It focused on how 72% still is covered by natural ecosystems and 28% have been altered by human activities for things like farming and living areas. Afterward it went into detail about how coastal ecosystems are being impacted by the development of urban, industrial and agricultural systems. Human activities have modified coastal habitats and shorelines; overexploited coastal ecosystem services; exacerbated invasive species; and fostered conservation of coastal and marine biodiversity. In order to continue to derive beneficial social, economic and environmental coastal ecosystem services at local, regional and global scales human society must elevate and integrate this multilevel task into their governance. Impact of The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Bioavailable Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons discussed how a lethal explosion at the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig located near the Louisiana coast led to the largest marine oil spill in United States history. This study communicated that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico and contributed to temporary increases in the bioavailable concentration of PAHs. It provided a …show more content…
These compounds have proven to be dangerous, as they function as endocrine disruptors in important hormone pathways once they are in the body, and they cause genetic mutations after entering the nucleus. Xenobiotics are able to pass through the cell membrane as ligands, and once inside the body they can enter the nucleus and cause the DNA to create a mutated gene. This gene then causes the cell to create an aberrant molecule. For instance, TCDD, when interacting with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, creates a gene that downregulates a hormone that signals apoptosis. This downregulation could then lead to the development of prostate cancer. PAHs can cause the same result. These xenobiotics and their biological pathways showcase how the transport of pollutants in the body can be complex and difficult to study. Several molecules can cause the same detrimental effects in the body, which complicates the efforts of toxicologists that try to determine which pollutant is the likely cause of a certain

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