What are buffer solutions?
Buffer solutions are solutions in water that mark the mixture of acids and bases. They assist in neutralization response to a certain quantity. Acidic buffer answers are those that have robust acids and weak bases as their components. they're used for neutralizing alkaline solutions. Alkaline or primary buffer answers are those who have sturdy alkalis and weak acids within themixture. they're used for neutralizing acidic aqueous answers.
Buffer solutions in the blood…
Experiment five was a two-part experiment meant to have us practice our skills and then use those skills in actual data collection and analysis. In part one we used a sample of sodium saccharinate combined with a sample of a metal halide salt, our group used copper(II) chloride. The combination of these two samples allowed for the synthesis of a metal complex. In part two of the experiment we used a procedure similar to part one in order to collect phosphorus out of a sample of…
2. Synthetic surfactants used in pharmaceuticals and their properties.
2.1 Classification of surface active agents.
The widely used synthethic surfactants in pharmaceuticals are classifieds as according on their surface charges.
1.Anionic surfactants:sodium alkyl sulfonates .SDS,SLS.
2.Cationic surfactants:Quaternary ammonium chlorides (quats),pyridinium salts .
3.Zwetterionic (amphoteric) surfactants:phospholipids- Phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin).
4.Nonionic surfactants: spans( esters of…
Extraction was the main method of removing compounds from the sample. The component X was removed from the sample by first adding the organic solvent dichloromethane to the test tube. After aggravation, the component X dissolved into the solvent. Since components Y and Z were insoluble in the organic solvent they remained as solids. The test tube was then placed into a centrifuge and ran for thirty seconds. By doing so, the unsettled solid were forced to accumulate at the bottom of the test tube…
HPLC column can be categorized into two types
• Reverse Phase
• Normal Phase
126.96.36.199. Reverse Phase Chromatography
Reverse Phase system has a non-polar stationary phase over which polar solvents are used as mobile phase; it is generally used for separation of polar species.
188.8.131.52. Normal phase chromatography
Normal Phase system has a polar stationary phase over which non-polar solvents are used as mobile phase; it is generally used for separation of non-polar species.. A detection…
Emulsions are two-phase systems, a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible. There are two phases in the system, in which one is the continuous phase and the other one is the dispersed phase.
Types of emulsions 
Oil in water (o/w): in which oil is the dispersed phase and water is the continuous phase.
Water in oil (w/o): in which water is the dispersed phase and oil is the continuous phase.
Emulsions have a cloudy or opaque appearance because particles scatter light…
Preparation of polyallyl polyether of allyl sucrose
Allyl sucrose is prepared by using sucrose, allyl chloride, NaOH and DMSO. This novel method is less time consuming and required less solvent than other methods. The product is characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT – IR), 1H-NMR and MASS Spectrometer. Key words: allyl sucrose, allyl chloride, sucrose
Allyl sucrose is used for…
Lipids have a hydrophobic nature because of the predominantly of hydrocarbon chains in their structure. They are insoluble or poorly soluble in water, but readily soluble in non polar solvents such as ether and benzene.
Characteristics of Lipids:
Soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water
Classification and biological functions of Lipids:
• Fatty Acids:
Nanocrystals (NCs) are interesting material, as their electrical and optical properties can be tuned by tuning their size or surface area. They have diverse applications in electrical devices. Nanocrystal thin film transistors (NC TFTs) have been intensively researched, because of their low-temperature processability.1,2 Colloidal NCs are synthesized in a liquid solution containing some stabilizing organic molecules, broadly termed as surfactants, which are bulky and insulating ligands. The…
The simple integral desorption model was used to represent the physical phenomena of the extraction process.20 The extraction vessel is loaded with leaf particles with an initial andrographolide concentration of S0 (g/g leaf particles) to form a packed bed system. Fresh supercritical solvent is fed in to the bed, the pore and void volumes () are initially free of solute, and the process is isothermal. The total mass balance in the supercritical fluid phase of this system can be described by the…