RNA

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    pancreatic adenocarcinoma[1, 2]. A major hindrance towards development of therapies against pancreatic ASC is that the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain poorly characterized. In this proposal I will take advantage of the expertise on RNA biochemistry and molecular biology that I have acquired during my doctoral training and combine it with the in vivo approaches developed by the Ventura lab to investigate the potential role of non-sense mediated decay and of the UPF1 gene…

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    Antisense RNA molecules that target Htt mRNA have been known to impair the translation of the gene sequence into the protein in vitro. However, the process of designing an siRNA which would target the mutant CAG repeat does inevitably result in degradation of normal…

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    The CRISPR/Cas9 System

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    These crRNA act as a honing device, used to direct certain Cas enzymes to degrade target nucleic acids1. A second form of noncoding RNA, trans-activating RNA (tracrRNA), forms a complex with crRNA and the Cas endonuclease to locate and cleave the invading DNA. Cas 9 is a specific Cas gene with the ability to induce double stranded cleavage in the genomic DNA1. This Cas 9 endonuclease is one…

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    Molecules and cells are the building blocks of development. The cells in our body performs different functions, which makes development possible. DNA contains instructions needed to tell cells what to do. RNA transfers the instructions to make proteins, which acts as receptors of signals in the brain. If RNA translates the wrong instruction from DNA, PKU could be the result, and children could become intellectually disabled. This all shows that biology is clearly a big role for human…

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    the nucleus of a cell origin and its significance is the beginning or the core that shape our lives. “Like the stone in a cherry, it is found in the center of the cell, and like this stone keeps its precious kernel in a shell” (p. 404). What Role of RNA and DNA in future life events?…

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    Genetic Therapy

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    in order to correct genetic disorders. Gene therapy uses a vector, typically a virus to deliver a gene to the cells where it's needed. Once it's inside, the cell's gene reading machinery uses the information in the gene to build RNA and protein molecules. The proteins, RNA can then carry out their job in the cells. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a…

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    Cyanoethoxy Research Paper

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    The cyano-ethoxy carbonyl protection Manoharan et al. (1999) developed 2(cyanoethoxycarbonyloxy)succinimide S.27a a stable, crystalline, and convenient reagent for the protection of pendant akylamines in oligonucleotides (Figure X.X.X). The 2-cyanoethyl (ce) group is the most common phosphate protecting group in oligonucleotides; however, ce and corresponding 2-(cyanoethoxycarbonyl) group were not utilized for the nucleobase protection until 2000. Merk et al. (2000) developed…

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    RNA Synthesis Essay

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    Transcription in prokaryotes requires the formation of the holoenzyme RNA polymerase (holoRNAP), which consists of a core enzyme and a σ subunit. The core enzyme consists of 5 subunits: 2 copies of α, which assemble the enzyme and bind regulatory factors; one copy of β, which has polymerase activity of RNA chain initiation and elongation; one copy of β’, which binds nonspecifically to DNA; and omega. An active center where RNA synthesis occurs is located within the DNA binding channel formed by…

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    Essay On Macromolecules

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    When we think “polymer”, we should not limit ourselves to its biological applications; polymers can do so much more. Polymers are the “recipe for life.” We find them everywhere we look. For example, turn to your friend. What is he or she made of? The answer is polymers. Polymers make up essential molecules in our bodies, such as proteins or nucleic acids. They may be microscopic, but their functions in our bodies are important. Background Information There is so much more to being…

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    Alongside CRISPR-Cas9 in site specific genome editing are ZFNs and TALENs. ZFNs are a DNA-binding motif assembled as ββα that utilizes a roughly thirty amino acid protein with DNA recognizing amino acids at the alpha helix (Gaj, Gersbach, & Barbas, 2013). These groups of amino acids usually recognize DNA in segments of three. This does not present much specificity in a genome. Therefore multiple DNA-binding motifs need to be combined to create specificity and result in highly specific…

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