RNA

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    principle that nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA, are negatively charged. This means that if you put nucleic acids in an electric field, they will migrate away from the negative end of the field and toward the positive end. The nucleic acids are placed inside the gel for two main reasons. One, the gel is a way of holding them to know where they are. Two, the migration needs to occur in a manner that allows for the separation of different-sized pieces of DNA or RNA. The gel has many microscopic…

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    Final Exam Bacteria’s gene is only coding (makes a protein) meaning one gene equals one protein. Bacteria’s life history is a short lifespan, reproduces quickly in large number of individuals. Griffith finds that bacterial cells can be transformed. (Raven) There are two forms of bacteria, one that causes pneumonia and a nonvirulent that does not. The nonvirulent lacks enzymes to manufacture the coat of polysaccharide. Griffith performed a series of experiments with these types of bacteria on…

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    Matt Ridley

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    I feel as if the chapters of life, species, and environment are the most relatable to lecture as well as our biology class as a whole. First and foremost, Ridley addresses life in his first chapter. This chapter consisted of the evolution of RNA to DNA. RNA was first on this planet Earth and it was the creator of life. On the opposition,…

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    pancreatic ASC, I will isolate total RNA from UPF1 mutant cell lines and perform RNA sequencing. To establish whether the upregulated genes are direct targets of NMD, I will compare this data with RNA isolated from cells where UPF1 is downregulated using short hairpin RNAs. To validate the top targets from RNA sequencing experiments, I will perform qPCR and northern blotting. To examine whether these candidates are also altered in pancreatic ASC, I will analyze the RNA levels of top targets in…

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    CRISPR is a technique that made genomic editing significantly easier. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated protein) is a RNA-guided nuclease for precise genome editing in diverse organisms. In 1987, when scientists were studying the bacteria's immune system, they discovered a pattern of short, repeating, palindromic DNA sequences separated by short, non-repeating, "spacer" DNA sequences (Figure 1). How CRISPR/Cas works in bacteria: As…

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    The ribosome reads information along the mRNA and brings the amino acid together with help from transfer RNA. Transfer RNA has a cloverleaf shape with base-paired arms and an attached anticodon sequence. At the bottom of the tRNA there is an anticodon that pairs with a codon on mRNA. A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides. Codons are read, in order, by tRNA,…

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    INTRODUCTION Biological ageing, or senescence, is a complex process characterised by progressive functional deterioration and cognitive decline (1). Accumulation of age related changes make individuals more prone to death and disease (2). Understanding these changes is important to understand the complexity of the human lifespan. The Hallmarks of Aging (3), is an article which describes nine factors that contribute to the ageing process. Aggravation or alleviation of these could contribute to…

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    The Pithovirus

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    The RNA worlds together with the DNA world are known to have numerous differences as well as similarities with the cell nature as well as the varied virus character demands pointing to the viruses coming first. To a degree, the theories that designate this phenomenon have contended on the dissimilar nature of viruses, as a crucial factor that illustrates the viruses coming first (Woese, 1987). In the biosphere of microbes, whereas viruses are regarded as minuscule in size, the Pithovirus is…

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    After reading chapter three I had a better understanding of DNA replication, what genes do, and also how humans are connected to other species, a better understanding on how we are all part of a “biological continuum”. In 1962 three men named James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins won of the most distinguished award which was the Noble prize. Although one more person also help discover DNA which she was not credited was Rosalind Franklen. DNA replication is the process one strand of…

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    Spacer Research Papers

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    synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Her initial work to solve large RNA structures led to other studies of structure on HDV ribozymes, and the IRES, and protein-RNA complexes like the Signal recognition particle. Now her labs focus on collecting a mechanistic understanding of biological processes involving RNA. these studies are broken up into three different sections. The CRISPR system, RNA interference, and translational control by MicroRNAs.She has collected the scientific…

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