Guanine

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    Cyanoethoxy Research Paper

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    Wielser et al. (1996). Deproetection was accomplished under nonprotic conditions using non-nucleophilic strong base 1,8-diazabicylco [5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU). The mechanism of deprotection follows -elimination pathway. Another advantage of this protection strategy is that the deprotection of oligonucleotide can be achieved in one step. Figure X.X.X 2-Cyanoethoxycarbonylating reagents Figure X.X.X Structures of ceoc-protected nucleobases The ceoc nucleobase protection was successfully used for the solid-phase synthesis of 2/3-O-acetylated RNA oligonucleotides (Xu et al., 2014, Figure X.X.X). Adenine and cytosine were reacted with cyanoethoxycarbonylating reagents affording the corresponding ceoc protected nucleosides. In the case of guanine, the O6 group was also protected with 4-nitrophenylethyl (Himmmelsbach et al., 1984) to prevent nucleobase anion formation and to avoid reduced deprotection kinetics of N2-ceoc group. The exocyclic amino group of adenine and cytosine were also protected by 1,1-dimethyl-2-cyanoethoxy carbonyl (Chen et al., 2000) group. Deprotection was carried out under aprotic, non-nucleophilic conditions, eleminating the use of Bronsted acid and base (Figure X.X.X). Protecting group Nucleobase Protection site Deprotection conditions References C(N4) A(N6) G(N2) DBU Xu et al., 2014. Merk et al. 2000. A (N6) C(N4) G (N2) Et3N/DMF, 55 C Aprotic conditions Chen et al., 2000 Figure X.X.X Cyanoethoxycarbonyl protecting groups Carbamate (or…

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    reverts to uridine (den Hartog et al., 1982). The triazolo derivative S.2 is also known to react with other nucleophiles. For example, in the presence of methanol and 1,8-diazabicyclo[3.4.0]undecene-7 (DBU), S.2 gives the corresponding 4-OMe derivative (Li et al., 1987). S.1 reacts with phosphorylating reagents at O4 and undergoes 4-triazolation in the presence of the phosphorylating reagent 2- or 4-chlorophenyl phosphorodi-1,2,4-triazolide. The triazolo derivative is converted to the…

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    backbone, and four different nitrogenous bases. These bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Ribonucleic acid, the molecule formed in the transcription of DNA, is made up of phosphate, ribose, and adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. The backbone of DNA consists of a phosphate bonded to a deoxyribose molecule. Deoxyribose is a sugar containing five carbons, and it is called deoxyribose as it is missing an oxygen atom on C2. The sugar found in RNA is oxygenated at this carbon, and…

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    The structure of DNA is a double helix, like a twisted ladder. The rungs each consist of two bases, either a pair of adenine and thymine, or a pair of cytosine and guanine, and the bases are shuffled, on different sides of the rings in a sequence. The sides of the of the 'ladder' are alternating sugars and phosphate groups. (Sugar-phosphate backbone) On one side of the ladder, the sugars are facing upwards, and on the other they are facing down. Each nucleotide has one deoxyribose sugar(without…

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    cytosine, uracil, and adenine (CUA); cytosine, guanine, and guanine (CGG); adenine, uracil, and guanine (AUG). Anticodons were attached to their complementary codons using hydrogen bond connectors and each amino acid was bonded to its respective tRNA. The amino acid models were bonded together using the white bonding tubes. The amino acid sequence was detached and compared. All parts were detached and returned to bag. Results In this lab, a DNA model was constructed and then the bonds were…

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    Protein Synthesis Paper

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    This paper is going to describe the replication of DNA and RNA and the processes of transcription and translation of protein synthesis. What is DNA? DNA is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in cells and some viruses, consisting of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. DNA sequences are replicated by the cell prior to cell division and may include genes,…

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    Gelatin Research Paper

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    For instance, crayons have an ingredient that's known as paraffin which is made with many mammal byproducts. In beauty products, specifically, nail polish and lipstick, they both contain guanine. Companies will often list the guanine as pearl essence. Guanine contains fish scales. The company downy uses a chemical that is called dihydrogenated tallow dimethyl ammonium chloride. Dihydrogenated tallow dimethyl ammonium chloride is a derivative of horse, sheep, and cattle fat, mixed with ammonium.…

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    Dna Research Paper

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    DNA is an important molecule for life. It is much like a manual telling the instructions of how bodies develop and function. DNA is the acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid. What is DNA made of? DNA is a molecule of nucleotides, such as adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. They are shown by their first letter: A- Adenine T- Thymine C- Cytosine G- Guanine The backbone that holds the nucleotides are called phosphate and deoxyribose. The nucleotides are known as bases. Human body has about 210…

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    1. a) The three parts of a nucleotide are phosphate, nitrogen-containing base, and the deoxyribose sugar. b) Deoxyribose sugar is the sugar that is found in a nucleotide. c) The nitrogen-containing base is the nucleotide component that contains nitrogen. d) The four nitrogen bases shown in Model 1 are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. 2. a) I pointed at a single nucleotide on the ladder model of DNA, on the worksheet. The nucleotide included phosphate, nitrogen-containing base, and…

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    ubiquitous is this pathway? After my reading this week, I had much better understanding on what really takes place during metabolism (catabolic reaction). Purine catabolism pathway is one of the cellular processes that fascinated me the most. I choose to research on this specific process and was able establish a pretty good grasp of what happens in the process of it break down. Purine bases are the adenine and guanine.…

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