Guanine

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  • Cyanoethoxy Research Paper

    Wielser et al. (1996). Deproetection was accomplished under nonprotic conditions using non-nucleophilic strong base 1,8-diazabicylco [5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU). The mechanism of deprotection follows -elimination pathway. Another advantage of this protection strategy is that the deprotection of oligonucleotide can be achieved in one step. Figure X.X.X 2-Cyanoethoxycarbonylating reagents Figure X.X.X Structures of ceoc-protected nucleobases The ceoc nucleobase protection was successfully used for the solid-phase synthesis of 2/3-O-acetylated RNA oligonucleotides (Xu et al., 2014, Figure X.X.X). Adenine and cytosine were reacted with cyanoethoxycarbonylating reagents affording the corresponding ceoc protected nucleosides. In the case of guanine, the O6 group was also protected with 4-nitrophenylethyl (Himmmelsbach et al., 1984) to prevent nucleobase anion formation and to avoid reduced deprotection kinetics of N2-ceoc group. The exocyclic amino group of adenine and cytosine were also protected by 1,1-dimethyl-2-cyanoethoxy carbonyl (Chen et al., 2000) group. Deprotection was carried out under aprotic, non-nucleophilic conditions, eleminating the use of Bronsted acid and base (Figure X.X.X). Protecting group Nucleobase Protection site Deprotection conditions References C(N4) A(N6) G(N2) DBU Xu et al., 2014. Merk et al. 2000. A (N6) C(N4) G (N2) Et3N/DMF, 55 C Aprotic conditions Chen et al., 2000 Figure X.X.X Cyanoethoxycarbonyl protecting groups Carbamate (or…

    Words: 1143 - Pages: 5
  • Advantages And Disadvantages Of Tri-O-Acetyloride

    reverts to uridine (den Hartog et al., 1982). The triazolo derivative S.2 is also known to react with other nucleophiles. For example, in the presence of methanol and 1,8-diazabicyclo[3.4.0]undecene-7 (DBU), S.2 gives the corresponding 4-OMe derivative (Li et al., 1987). S.1 reacts with phosphorylating reagents at O4 and undergoes 4-triazolation in the presence of the phosphorylating reagent 2- or 4-chlorophenyl phosphorodi-1,2,4-triazolide. The triazolo derivative is converted to the…

    Words: 1630 - Pages: 7
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid Research Paper

    backbone, and four different nitrogenous bases. These bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Ribonucleic acid, the molecule formed in the transcription of DNA, is made up of phosphate, ribose, and adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. The backbone of DNA consists of a phosphate bonded to a deoxyribose molecule. Deoxyribose is a sugar containing five carbons, and it is called deoxyribose as it is missing an oxygen atom on C2. The sugar found in RNA is oxygenated at this carbon, and…

    Words: 651 - Pages: 3
  • Frederick Griffith's R-Strain

    The structure of DNA is a double helix, like a twisted ladder. The rungs each consist of two bases, either a pair of adenine and thymine, or a pair of cytosine and guanine, and the bases are shuffled, on different sides of the rings in a sequence. The sides of the of the 'ladder' are alternating sugars and phosphate groups. (Sugar-phosphate backbone) On one side of the ladder, the sugars are facing upwards, and on the other they are facing down. Each nucleotide has one deoxyribose sugar(without…

    Words: 585 - Pages: 3
  • Construction Of DNA, DNA And Protein By Building Models

    cytosine, uracil, and adenine (CUA); cytosine, guanine, and guanine (CGG); adenine, uracil, and guanine (AUG). Anticodons were attached to their complementary codons using hydrogen bond connectors and each amino acid was bonded to its respective tRNA. The amino acid models were bonded together using the white bonding tubes. The amino acid sequence was detached and compared. All parts were detached and returned to bag. Results In this lab, a DNA model was constructed and then the bonds were…

    Words: 1175 - Pages: 5
  • Gelatin Research Paper

    For instance, crayons have an ingredient that's known as paraffin which is made with many mammal byproducts. In beauty products, specifically, nail polish and lipstick, they both contain guanine. Companies will often list the guanine as pearl essence. Guanine contains fish scales. The company downy uses a chemical that is called dihydrogenated tallow dimethyl ammonium chloride. Dihydrogenated tallow dimethyl ammonium chloride is a derivative of horse, sheep, and cattle fat, mixed with ammonium.…

    Words: 470 - Pages: 2
  • Protein Synthesis Paper

    This paper is going to describe the replication of DNA and RNA and the processes of transcription and translation of protein synthesis. What is DNA? DNA is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in cells and some viruses, consisting of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. DNA sequences are replicated by the cell prior to cell division and may include genes,…

    Words: 400 - Pages: 2
  • Sickle Cell Anemia Effect

    and acute chest syndrome (Minter and Gladwin, 2001). Acute chest syndrome is the most common cause of death and the second most common cause of hospitalization of adults with sickle cell anemia (Minter and Gladwin, 2001). The last major outcome of the disease is eye problems. Sickle cells can damage the layer of tissue in the back of eyes, known as the retina. Damage to the retina can cause many problems and if not treated blindness can occur (National Institute of Health). Sickle Cell Anemia…

    Words: 1646 - Pages: 7
  • The Nuclecule Of Life: The Structure Of DNA

    1.1 The structure of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is often referred to as “the molecule of life”. It encodes the instructions that are used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. The molecule itself was first discovered in 1860 by Friedrich Miescher (reviewed in Dahm 2005). Further work was performed by other chemists, including Phoebus Levene who identified the components of the molecule, including the presence of ribose sugars and phosphate groups, as well as four…

    Words: 1212 - Pages: 5
  • Carbohydrates: Macromolecules In Plants And Animals

    speeding up digestion. Proteins help protect the body by taking the form of an antibody and binding to the foreign invader such as bacteria. Proteins can be considered messenger proteins which help transmit signals between different organs, tissues, and cells. Most of these functions occur in plants and animals. Nucleic acids store, transfer, and convey hereditary information. The monomer of a nucleic acid is nucleotide. A nucleotide is made up of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base. The…

    Words: 722 - Pages: 3
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