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  • Cyanoethoxy Research Paper

    The cyano-ethoxy carbonyl protection Manoharan et al. (1999) developed 2(cyanoethoxycarbonyloxy)succinimide S.27a a stable, crystalline, and convenient reagent for the protection of pendant akylamines in oligonucleotides (Figure X.X.X). The 2-cyanoethyl (ce) group is the most common phosphate protecting group in oligonucleotides; however, ce and corresponding 2-(cyanoethoxycarbonyl) group were not utilized for the nucleobase protection until 2000. Merk et al. (2000) developed 2-(cyanoethoxy)carbonyl (ceoc) protection for the protection of the excocylic amino group of adenine, guaninine, and cytosine. The (2-cyanoethoxy)carbonylation reactions were carried out with either 2-cyanoethyl carbonochloridate (S.27b ) or 1-((2-cyanoethoxy)carbonyl)-3-methyl-1H -imidazolium chloride (S.27c) (Figure X.X.X), which were synthesized by the…

    Words: 1143 - Pages: 5
  • Demonstration Of Cellular Respiration

    Demonstration of Cellular Respiration Inside Lima Beans Cells in Vitro Purpose: Cellular respiration is a series of metabolic reactions that take place in the mitochondria and produce chemical energy in the form of ATP by the breakdown of food molecules.There are three processes involved in cellular respiration; glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. During this processes, glucose is oxidized by a series of redox reactions and its electrons and hydrogen ions are donated…

    Words: 776 - Pages: 4
  • Flow Battery Cycle

    Flow batteries have been around since the 1970’s this technological advance in the field of energy storage and acts as a fuel cell which can provide a new and efficient energy supply. One of the biggest advantages of flow batteries is that they can practically in an instance recharge just by replacing the electrolyte liquid,while this happens it is recovering the spent materials for recharge. Several different flow batteries have been developed, including Redox, Hybrid and, Membraneless. The…

    Words: 1725 - Pages: 7
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid Research Paper

    phosphate and deoxyribose backbone, and four different nitrogenous bases. These bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Ribonucleic acid, the molecule formed in the transcription of DNA, is made up of phosphate, ribose, and adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. The backbone of DNA consists of a phosphate bonded to a deoxyribose molecule. Deoxyribose is a sugar containing five carbons, and it is called deoxyribose as it is missing an oxygen atom on C2. The sugar found in RNA is…

    Words: 651 - Pages: 3
  • Frederick Griffith's R-Strain

    The structure of DNA is a double helix, like a twisted ladder. The rungs each consist of two bases, either a pair of adenine and thymine, or a pair of cytosine and guanine, and the bases are shuffled, on different sides of the rings in a sequence. The sides of the of the 'ladder' are alternating sugars and phosphate groups. (Sugar-phosphate backbone) On one side of the ladder, the sugars are facing upwards, and on the other they are facing down. Each nucleotide has one deoxyribose sugar(without…

    Words: 585 - Pages: 3
  • Construction Of DNA, DNA And Protein By Building Models

    tRNA models: cytosine, uracil, and adenine (CUA); cytosine, guanine, and guanine (CGG); adenine, uracil, and guanine (AUG). Anticodons were attached to their complementary codons using hydrogen bond connectors and each amino acid was bonded to its respective tRNA. The amino acid models were bonded together using the white bonding tubes. The amino acid sequence was detached and compared. All parts were detached and returned to bag. Results In this lab, a DNA model was constructed and then the…

    Words: 1175 - Pages: 5
  • Protein Synthesis Paper

    This paper is going to describe the replication of DNA and RNA and the processes of transcription and translation of protein synthesis. What is DNA? DNA is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in cells and some viruses, consisting of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. DNA sequences are replicated by the cell prior to cell division and may include genes,…

    Words: 400 - Pages: 2
  • Dna Structure And Function Essay

    1. DNA Structure and Function DNA is the type of organic compound that stores the genetic information in a living organism. DNA is made up of two strands of nucleotides, which include a phosphate group, five carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base. Each individual strand in held together by strong covalent bonds (a bond formed as a result of the distribution of electrons between atoms). The two strands are then joined to each other by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases. There are four…

    Words: 1255 - Pages: 6
  • The Nuclecule Of Life: The Structure Of DNA

    1.1 The structure of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is often referred to as “the molecule of life”. It encodes the instructions that are used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. The molecule itself was first discovered in 1860 by Friedrich Miescher (reviewed in Dahm 2005). Further work was performed by other chemists, including Phoebus Levene who identified the components of the molecule, including the presence of ribose sugars and phosphate groups, as well as four…

    Words: 1212 - Pages: 5
  • The Double Helix: James Watson And Francis Crick

    Neither genetics nor reproduction could be fully understood without such information. For eighteen months, they pursued the knowledge with a single-minded focus, immersing themselves in all fields of science concerned, including genetics, chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and X-ray crystallography. They took especial interest in earlier genetic study. Early genetic research included that of Biochemist Erwin Chargaff, who had composed Chargaff’s rules. His rules stated that among…

    Words: 877 - Pages: 4
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