Adenine

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    Environments Introduction DNA is composed of two strands composed of polynucleotides arranged in a double helix formation composed of four nucleotide subunits: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Each base must form a hydrogen bond with its respective compatible base, therefore adenine always bonds with thymine and guanine always bonds with cytosine. DNA is used to transfer genetic information to be able to duplicate a cell completely and successfully(6).…

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    Introduction DNA is called deoxyribonucleic acid. This contains a phosphate group, sugars, and a complementary base. DNA is found in plants and animal cells in the nucleus. The nucleus is the control center where DNA is replicated or produced within a cell. DNA also contains our genetic material. This is possible due to differences in individual’s phenotype and genotype. DNAs structure is double helical; meaning two strands are parallel to each other and in a ladder formation. This can occur…

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    A, B and Z DNA Structure These three types of DNA all possess the similar property of a double helical structure formed from a sugar-phosphate backbone and containing the 4 bases, adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine, complementarily paired with hydrogen bonding. A and G are purines and have a double ring whereas T and C are pyrimidines and have only a single ring. Within the helix a pyrimidine is always paired with a purine such that G is always paired with C and T with A. The difference…

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    Erwin Schrödinger was a physicist pioneer who gave a series of lectures in 1944. They were published under the title What is Life? (Harold, 2001). Though philosophical in nature, many have wondered if life can be reduced to biology or even further down to chemistry. This sent many scientists looking for the answer and spawned the guiding question, could human life be artificially created at the cellular level? This would consist of arranging the correct amounts of various elements into the…

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    Nucleotide Essay

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    MSA University, faculty of pharmacy, Bio chemistry department. Course code PB301 Nucleotides Student name: ID: Under supervision of DR: Teaching assistant Structure Nucleic acids are polymers consist of units called nucleotides. These mononucleotide units react together by intermolecular dehydration reactions that create phosphate ester bonds. Those reactions are either, catalyzed or specialized enzymes. The nucleotide units are created by smaller types of components. Each nucleotide…

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    Under oxidative conditions, certain nucleobases (for example, adenine and cytosine) can form N-oxides. Also, the C8 position of guanosine is vulnerable to hydrolytic attack under either strongly acidic or strongly alkaline conditions. The 5,6 double bond of pyrimidine nucleosides also reacts with halogens and halohydrins to give the corresponding addition products (Shabarova and Bogdanov, 1994). Selected examples of the side reactions that occur during oligonucleotide synthesis are given below.…

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    distorts the red blood cells into a crescent shape at low oxygen levels.” Sickle cell disease is a result of a single nucleotide change in the DNA sequence of hemoglobin-Beta gene found on chromosome 11. This missense mutation substitutes the nucleotide Adenine (A) for Thymine (T), resulting in an mRNA sequence that codes for the amino acid Valine (V) instead of glutamic acid…

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    Mthfr Research Paper

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    In recent years MTHFR has been popularised in social media and blogs with various levels of information and potential misinformation. A search on google.com.au using the term “MTHFR” provided 1,330,000 results in 0.40 seconds.[1] With all of this different information being available 24 hours per day, all year round, it can be confusing for practitioners and patients to sift through to determine what is scientific, clinical or “hearsay”. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)…

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    PURPOSE The purpose of this lab was to isolate DNA from a strawberry. METHODS We used a variety of materials to extract the DNA from the strawberry. These include a disposable cup, a rubber band, a plastic knife, a zipper bag, a pipet, a coffee filter, ethanol, a lysis buffer, a test tube, an inoculating loop, and a strawberry. The general objects that we used for convenience and safety include a lab coat, a tray to cut the strawberry, and lots of paper towels. The…

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    In this modern age of information gathering and retrieval, the thought of how and to the extent we can store information has always been an issue of paramount concern. For while libraries, hard drives, and floppy disks served their purpose in bygone times, the amount of information we have today, along with the prodigious rate it is still growing, have made them , while not necessarily obsolete, insufficient for the task. This is why the most promising method of storage in the current time is…

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