Citric acid cycle

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    The Citric Acid Cycle

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    Abstract The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle, is central to the formation of usable energy forms in cells. This essay will give detail on how this is achieved and the cycle’s links to other metabolic pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation. It will also explore how the cycle functions in anabolic and catabolic forms while replenishing used intermediates before examining how the cycle is regulated. Introduction The citric acid cycle being named “the hub of the metabolic wheel” is testament to its importance within the cell and within the organism. Andreas (1) described the fact that because its of such importance that it is logical to assume that it was one of the first components of the cell…

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    The citric acid cycle generates energy from the oxidation of various fuel molecules to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). Acetyl CoA undergoes several redox, hydration and decarboxylation reactions to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and hydrogen ions. The citric acid cycle links glycolysis which produces pyruvate from glucose and oxidative phosphorylation which generates ATP…

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    cellular respiration can somewhat vary, depending on the nutrient being processed; this article will focus on the pathway of breaking down glucose. There are three main stages of cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and the Electron Transport System. For the chemical enthusiasts reading this, the chemical equation to describe cellular respiration is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 ®6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP and heat). Stage 1: Glycolysis The first stage is cellular respiration is called…

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    3. CAC hypothetical enzyme defect When an alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme is removed or defective, it cannot convert alpha ketoglutarate substrate to succinyl-CoA product in the citric acid cycle. Thus, the whole citric acid cycle will not continue to function. The steps of citric acid cycle will not continue once there will be a defective enzyme. Normally, NADH and FADH2 in the matrix carry electrons to deliver them in the inner membrane of mitochondria. NADH delivers electrons in…

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    Cellular Fermentation Lab

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    This lab is based on measuring cellular respiration and fermentation. Cellular respiration can be expresses to as a method of breaking down organic molecules to release their stored energy. (Upadhyaya, 2017). Throughout cellular respiration there are two main phases which are glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. Glycolysis produces two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate and 2 molecules of ATP. In the citric acid cycle pyruvate loses one of its three carbons and then becomes attached to coenzyme A…

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    Synthesis Of Carbohydrates

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    is inhibited by high levels of Acetyl CoA and ATP, this is activated by fructose 1 6-bisphosphate. The product pyruvate is transported from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membranes into the matrix, this process is activated by ADP and AMP. Most pyruvate formed is converted to Acetyl CoA which then enters the Citric Acid Cycle. The citric acid cycle (CAC) takes place in the mitochondrial matrix inside the double mitochondrial membrane. Within this process the acetyl groups are oxidized Thus…

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    Cellular Respiration Lab

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    experiment two we see that it grew in restrictive temperature where it is also adapting to other food sources. The enzyme that is mutated to get use to its restrictive temperature is phosphofructokinase and this enzyme make its phosphate group go to the other end of the sugar. In strain 152, 3-phosphoglycerate accumulates because of the enzyme Phosphoglycerokinase helps it to grow in the restrictive temperature. The pyruvate kinase is an enzyme that is functioning incorrectly after because in…

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    proteins, carbohydrates and fats into energy. Aerobic metabolism requires oxygen to function, unlike anaerobic metabolism (Tang, nd). The oxygen breaks down glucose to release energy in the form of ATP, producing carbon dioxide and water as bi-products. The process of aerobic metabolism includes glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain (Pass My Exams, nd). Slide Three- Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex, or PDC, is an…

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    Roberts Period 6 Cellular Respiration Aerobic cellular respiration is a process in which our cells get energy in the form of ATP. This process has 3 major steps in order to function properly. These steps are Glycolysis, Citric Acid or Krebs Cycle, and the electric transport state. These steps each have an important role in our cells respiration cycle. The first step in the cycle is called Glycolysis. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol or cytoplasm of a cell. For Glycolysis to start it…

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    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the body’s main source of chemical energy. It is produced by breaking down nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids and proteins, which are all found in food. At the start of the race, anaerobic pathways are used to provide a quick source of energy. Most of this energy is derived from the catabolism of fats. Since lipids are more reduced than carbohydrates, they are capable of storing more energy per unit weight. Triacylglycerols are the lipids used for energy…

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