Oxidative phosphorylation

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    Making ATP from Free fatty Acids:- The other two energy substrates, FFAs and AAs, bypass glycolysis and ultimately enter the TCA cycle/oxidative phosphorylation as pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or different components of the TCA cycle. FFAs are released from adipose tissue by lipolysis and circulate in blood bound to serum albumin. Transport proteins then translocate FFAs into cells. FFAs are metabolized in mitochondria by the repetitive, cyclic process of β oxidation. This requires the transport of FFAs into the inner mitochondrial matrix by the carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-I and CPT-II) system of transporters. Each cycle of β oxidation removes two carbon moieties at a time from FFA chains and generates a molecule of acetyl CoA, which is oxidized…

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    The citric acid cycle generates energy from the oxidation of various fuel molecules to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). Acetyl CoA undergoes several redox, hydration and decarboxylation reactions to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and hydrogen ions. The citric acid cycle links glycolysis which produces pyruvate from glucose and oxidative phosphorylation which generates ATP…

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    Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) is a mitochondrial lipid dependent membrane bound enzyme and principle donor of free energy in the living system. Any alteration in membrane lipids leads to changes in membrane fluidity, which in turn alters the ATPase activity and cellular function. The use of ATPase level measurement was considered as an appropriate index of membrane damage. Pathological processes that interfere with the production of ATP may interfere with sodium pump activity, which in turn…

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    electrons is called electron transport chain. When the electron reached the complex IV, electron will be released so other electrons can go through and will be obtained by oxygen (O2) to form into water (H2O). Oxygen also called terminal electron acceptor is necessary to remove electrons so other electrons can go through and to pump out protons (H+) for cellular respiration. An enzyme called ATP synthase provided protons energy to make ATP. Protons can only go through ATP synthase in a…

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    What´s Mitochondria

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    Mitochondria are organelles found in eukaryotes obtained through endosymbiosis with prokaryotes billions of years ago. They are organelles with their own DNA and outer and inner membrane and few organelles, because they lost many of their organelles to the Nuclear DNA of the eukaryotes which resulted them being dependent of the cell they live in This endosymbiosis is very crucial for eukaryotes survival since mitochondria produce the energy needed for the cell to survive through oxidative…

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    Cellular respiration is “the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules and use an electron transport chain for the production of ATP” (Campbell G-6). The chemical equation for cellular respiration is C6H12O6+6O2→6CO2+6H2O+energy. During that multi-step process, organic molecules are oxidized and catabolized down to carbon dioxide. The energy that is released during this breakdown is captured by the electron carriers, which is any of various…

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    Fermentation Lab Report

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    Rafaela Hajdini Bio 104- 55 November 11th 2014 Fermentation Lab Report Abstract: Introduction: Cellular respiration is a reaction that the majority of living organisms partake in to get adenosine triphosphate (ATP), by obtaining chemical energy, to synthesize in three different phases; glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. Both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle are anaerobic pathways which means that oxygen is not need to form energy. However the…

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    The Citric Acid Cycle

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    Abstract The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle, is central to the formation of usable energy forms in cells. This essay will give detail on how this is achieved and the cycle’s links to other metabolic pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation. It will also explore how the cycle functions in anabolic and catabolic forms while replenishing used intermediates before examining how the cycle is regulated. Introduction The citric acid cycle being named…

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    Glycolysis Lab Report

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    enters the cell, and into the cytoplasm, where it beings the process of glycolysis. 2. ETC and Chemiosmosis a. Relevant Concentration glucose gradients The matrix has a low concentration of H+ protons, whereas the intermembrane has a high concentration. As the electrons move through the electron transport chain, they go through a series of redox reactions. First, the electrons go from the NADH dehydrogenase complex to coenzyme Q, where there is a massive energy loss, which is used to push…

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    Mitochondria Experiment

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    Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain. Cellular respiration usually starts with a glucose molecule which is broken down in glycolysis into two pyruvate molecules, both of which consist of three carbons. This results in a total of 4 ATP molecules, while only 2 ATP molecules are needed to start glycolysis. As such, during glycolysis, overall 2 ATP molecules are produced. This process of glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. Each of the two pyruvate molecules then enters the Krebs…

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