# P-value

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Question 1 Null hypothesis The null hypothesis, which is symbolically expressed as H0, is a statement that indicates no difference between a parameter and a specific value or between two parameters. Alternative Hypothesis The alternative hypothesis, which is symbolically expressed as HA or H1, is a statement that indicates the presence of a difference between a parameter and a specific value or between two parameters. Decision Rules On testing the null hypothesis, two main decision rules are plausible. These decisions are arrived at using either the critical value or the probability value (p-value). On one hand, the critical value is a value that indicates the boundary between the critical region and the non-critical region. In this case, the critical region is a range of values of the test statistic that denotes a significant difference and that the null hypothesis should be rejected. On the other hand, the p-value denotes the likelihood of obtaining an extreme sample statistic when the null hypothesis is true. In this case, we may reject the null hypothesis or fail to…

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includes several crucial information for projects including the factors that are critical for this study: cost, schedule and change order data. A preliminary trend analysis was performed to analyze the general behavior of the different industries and delivery systems involved with no significance level testing. A detailed analysis was then performed to validate the research hypothesis that were stated above. Spearman’s non-parametric Correlation Analysis was used to observe linear relationships…

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Autocorrelation is not expected to be an issue with the model, given that the it is not using time series data, and it can therefore be assumed that there is no autocorrelation present in the model. To make sure that there is no perfect collinearity present in the model, it is recommended to run a collinearity test of the model (see: Exhibit 1.1). If a variable generate a VIF (Variance Inflation Factors) value above 10.0, the model might have a collinearity problem and attempts to correct the…

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In the recent years America has moved away from being more conservative with our bodies and mind. Reading this in current time my views differentiated greatly with store managers and values of A&P. During this time women were suspected to cover up and be more conservative. These were the social norms most people didn’t want to stick out or assumed as rebels. Then there are these three girl walking into A&P in bathing suits breaking all social norms. They cause such a stir a teenage boy quit…

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4-P and Value Approach This week, in my paper, I will analyze the two main methods that are utilized in marketing, namely the 4-P and the Value approach. Firstly, I believe that it is important to know and understand well what marketing means. In accord with the American Marketing Association, marketing is “the activity, set of institutions, and processes, for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large”…

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gender, age, health, attitudes, and values.” (p.3) For example if someone grew up in rural, farm country in Wisconsin, with small schools and less populace access they tend to be more reserved as well as a working person behind the scenes within a group setting. Whereas you taking someone from big ranch country of Texas, with large schools, and metropolitan access their background might influence them to be out going within a group setting. Sometimes it’s not even where someone grew up but it…

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sharing and empirical evidence, as stated by Ajzen (Theory of Planned behavior p.82 2001). The inception of share economy businesses by which entry is valued over ownership through joint consumption has generated demand for researchers to analysis feasibility through pertinent measurements. The nine building blocks of ‘the business model canvas’ (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2009), enables researchers, or other stakeholders a more comprehensive overview of business feasibility. The BMC aims to act as…

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and Kenya: The Masai”. The major values of wisdom and friendship emerge. In many of these ancient writings, characters demonstrate the value of being friendly to one another, and also how it is highly regarded when people perceive a person as wise. These values are the same no matter the distance or difference of the people across the world, showing that friendship and wisdom are very important and matter to an enormous group of people. Wisdom…

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our society nowadays. It changed hugely and improved greatly from the past. Education is really important nowadays as it plays a significant role in the creation of a progressive society, due to which most of the people and many other philosophers have realized its importance. The overall development of a society requires a good educational system, which could lead to technological advancements and many scientific discoveries. According to Behrman and Stacey they mentioned that "Education…

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Hello Smita, This semester, I took a history class called “History Today: Debates and Practices” for my history minor. Throughout the semester, we discussed various ‘houses’ (or approaches) to studying history, and the various benefits and drawbacks of each. Historians and political scientists both get to decide what time span – as well as what scale (micro to macro) – to study. Although both political scientists and historians study evidence to construct a narrative about what is going on,…

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