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    Biceps Muscles Lab Report

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    Figure 1. An EMG Tracing of Triceps and Biceps Muscles Co-activation. EMG signal produces an electrical activity of the muscle fibers active at a moment time. The electrical activity is measured in millivolts per milliseconds. The top channel shows the bicep EMG, while the bottom EMG correlates to the triceps contraction traces. Shown on the top graph, there are two periods of bicep activation, each last approximately 1.5ms. When the biceps are activated, it produces increasing amplitude peaks, and when the biceps are inhibited, the amplitude decreased dramatically. The same idea applies to the triceps. In bottom channel illutrates two triceps activation periods, where a larger amplitude was exhibited when activated and when inhibited, the amplitude decreased. When one muscle is active, the other muscle is mostly inhibited and vice versa. This is known as the co-activation phenomenon and is demonstrated in the figure. 2. A). As weights were added to the arm, the amplitude of the top channel of the EMG trace for the bicep muscles increased as each individual book was added. In this experiments of lifting objects, the bicep muscles that were doing much of the work is known as flexors while the triceps were doing less of the work in the opposition force of contractile. For the top channel that correlates with the bicep trace; a greater amplitude peak was shown due to that fact that more and more muscle fibers are being activated as each additional book is added. For our…

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    HCSMA Case Studies

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    Case Study: Hereditary Canine Spinal Muscular Atrophy Genetic Background Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is proven to be an autosomal-dominate disease that affects most noticeably the Brittany spaniel (Pinter MJ, Waldeck RF, Wallace N, & Cork LC, Motor Unit Behavior in Canine Motor Neuron Disease, 1995). HCSMA originated as a spontaneous mutation in the Survivor Motor Neutron gene found in the purebred Brittany spaniel population (Ericsson. A & Rubin. C, 2012). Due to the…

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    1. Nerve conduction tests of the ulnar, tibial, and peroneal nerves involves testing how well and quickly a nerve can send electrical signals to begin contraction of skeletal muscles. The first step in muscle contraction is excitation of a skeletal muscle fiber by a nerve signal. The nerve signal must be sent to the neuromuscular junction to open the voltage-gated calcium channels. Just like in a muscle fiber, the neuron must reach threshold potential before the action potentials can be…

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    Introduction: Temperature can affect the rate at which an action potential is generated to excite an action potential within a given skeletal muscle. Maximum contraction is the ability of the muscle to recruit and produce its greatest force during a contraction, and we can observe these effects by using a grip force transducer, which records the functional grip force of the hand. Therefore, the purpose of this lab was to discern how varying temperatures affect maximum contraction. I…

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    A nerve cell is also called a motor neuron, which is made from a cell body, an axon and axon terminals. The cell body contains a nucleus and dendrites that receive the signals and send it down the axon that is covered in myelin sheath. The axon terminals are connected to the muscles creating a neuromuscular junction. This is where the signal is relayed to the muscle. There are two groups of motor neurons: upper and lower. Upper motor neurons are those found in the brain and lower motor neurons…

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    The process that is used by nurses and clinicians to consider a patient situation, collect data, process this data, make goals and implement interventions, evaluate outcomes and then finally, reflect on the learning outcomes from this process, is known as clinical reasoning (Hoffman, 2007). Clinical reasoning cycle is the tool that is used for the process of clinical reasoning. This paper will discuss management of Motor neurone disease using the clinical reasoning cycle as a framework. However,…

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    Tpk-Trypsin Lab Report

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    expect to see a reduction in the viral titer in the DF-1 cells that are stably expressing viperin compared to the DF-1 cells that are transfected with an empty vector. Objective 4: Identification of the critical regions and residues important for duck viperin function and localization. Viperin consists of three distinct domains; an N-terminal domain that varies considerably between species and contains both an amphipathic helix and a leucine zipper domain; the N-terminal domain plays an…

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    For my service project I did two types of volunteering. One was being the president of Kilmer's Student Council Association (SCA). In SCA, a group of seventh and eighth grade students, including myself, got together about every other week, for an hour, to discuss, plan, and promote student events. Some of these events included student dances, holiday/seasonal games at lunch, fun runs, fundraisers and Kilmer Spirit Week. First, we would discuss what materials and how much time we would need to…

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    APOE Gene Research Paper

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    Sequence one’s protein was found to be apolipoprotein E. This protein is known as the APOE gene. The protein forms molecules called lipoproteins by combining fats in the body. Lipoproteins have the responsibility to package cholesterol and other fats, and send them through the bloodstream. To prevent disorders with this protein, it is important to maintain the right level of cholesterol, so that it does not affect the heart and blood vessels that could causes a heart attack, stroke, or a…

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    Clendinnen recounts the history of the Yucatan peninsula once the Spanish arrived. She splits her recounting into two sections: the Spanish’s perceptive and the Mayan’s perspective. Clendinnen’s recounting the Spanish side of history demonstrates a struggle not only between the Spanish and the new land and its inhabitants, but also the internal conflicts between the Spanish settlers and the friars. At first she tells us how the Spaniards’ interactions with the natives consisted of tribute…

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