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    An operon is a cluster of genes in a bacteria that are clustered together and have related functions. Genes in an operon are coexpressed, which means that they are turned on or off under a single promoter. The genes of the arabinose operon are Ara A, Ara B, and Ara D (or the B. A. D. genes) which are all digestive enzymes that allow bacteria to break down arabinose. When Ara A, Ara B, and Ara D cluster together they form the arabinose operon. The gene that replaces the arabinose operon is the pGLO gene. GFP is an abbreviation for Green Fluorescent Protein and the protein is found in the jellyfish, Aequorea victoria. GFP is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to blue ultraviolet…

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    RNA Synthesis Essay

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    Transcription in prokaryotes requires the formation of the holoenzyme RNA polymerase (holoRNAP), which consists of a core enzyme and a σ subunit. The core enzyme consists of 5 subunits: 2 copies of α, which assemble the enzyme and bind regulatory factors; one copy of β, which has polymerase activity of RNA chain initiation and elongation; one copy of β’, which binds nonspecifically to DNA; and omega. An active center where RNA synthesis occurs is located within the DNA binding channel formed by…

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    RNA Polymerases

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    François Jacob and Jacques Monod explored how the regulation of transcription of DNA affects the enzyme levels in a cell. They found this information through experiments in eubacteria and eukaryotes. According to Kireeva (2013) “However, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase proved elusive until 1960, when it was independently identified in bacteria by Hurwitz and Stevens and in plants by the Bonner group” (p. 8325). There were also many experiments after these in which the scientists focused mostly…

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    depending on functional kinase activity, and a subset of the receptors contains a receiver domain which promotes interaction with CTR15, 6. Interestingly, the receiver domain of ethylene receptors has a remarkable structural similarity with the Ras protein in mammalian. The Ras is a small GTP-binding protein and is a critical regulator of RAF kinase function7. In the absence of ethylene, the receptors have inverse agonistic roles and suppress the ethylene signaling. This negative regulation of…

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    How were the ancestors affected by a boy experiencing starvation between the ages of 9 - 11? Ans: In the case of the boys that experienced starvation between the ages of 9 to 11, it was observed that the grandchildren of those boys suffered from a much lower risk of heart disease (about 1/4th) and diabetes than normal. Thus, the grandchildren of the starved boys also enjoyed extended lifespans, sometimes by as much as 30 years. 2. What inheritable effect do they think the boy’s starvation…

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    of Dapk1 in colorectal carcinoma through regulation of ligand-independent caspase activation (Forcet, et al., 2001). The pathways related to Notch signaling were the next significantly enriched biological pathways with practical implications in targeting cancer cells because of crosstalk with different developmental signaling pathways (Eberl, et al., 2012; Takebe, et al., 2015). Direct p53 effectors pathway was significantly enriched with several CRGs including Pmaip1, Scn3b, Perp, Rb1, Fas and…

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    Then the miRNAs would be extracted from each of the three mediums using a Sigma mirPremier miRNA isolation kit and then analyzed using qt-PCR. The control used was the full media plate. The media type that the seeds were grown on was the independent variable in the experiment while the dependent variable was the different levels of miRNA expression. The plants were then collected into a tube and grinded in a lysis mix with a pestle. To isolate the small RNAs, the Sigma mirPremier miRNA isolation…

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    Pyramidal CA1 Neurons

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    gains in high-throughput sequencing, digital qPCR, enhanced genetic tools for Drosophila melanogaster, better mapping of genomes and a surge in bioinformatics tools to analyze gene expression. While I have previously looked at the broad gene expression differences, this data set is lacking the more subtle analysis of different transcript abundance of specific genes. It is known that a total gene expression count will mask transcript differences, thus occluding potentially significant…

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    APOE Genetic Differences

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    In sequence 2, the DNA coded for the gene Apolipoprotein E, also known as APOE. The APOE protein is made from instructions from the APOE gene. This protein binds with fats from the body to form lipoproteins, which are responsible for packaging cholesterol and other fats and carrying them through the bloodstream. There are three different versions of the APOE gene. They are known as APOE e2, e3, or e4. Different forms of APOE have been shown to cause a variety of different diseases. The most…

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    The transcription of a counseling session involves a ninety-one year old, white female. The female is referred to as ‘client; to protect her confidentiality. The client expressed some grief over the loss of a son many years ago. The client is seeking help for the anniversary of her son’s death. The client is well dressed and able to communicate effectively. The client is within normal ranges of motor skills and mental ability for an individual in her age range. The transcription is twenty…

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