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  • RNA Synthesis Essay

    Transcription in prokaryotes requires the formation of the holoenzyme RNA polymerase (holoRNAP), which consists of a core enzyme and a σ subunit. The core enzyme consists of 5 subunits: 2 copies of α, which assemble the enzyme and bind regulatory factors; one copy of β, which has polymerase activity of RNA chain initiation and elongation; one copy of β’, which binds nonspecifically to DNA; and omega. An active center where RNA synthesis occurs is located within the DNA binding channel formed by the β subunits. Several flexible domains stem from the β and β’ subunits (e.g. β’ jaw, β’ downstream clamp, etc.) that surround the DNA binding channel and stabilize DNA binding interactions. The core enzyme can bind DNA nonspecifically, but it requires the binding of the dissociable RNAP factor σ to form the holoenzyme RNAP. σ is capable of recognizing and binding promoters, so once it binds to RNAP, it increases RNAP specificity for certain promoter regions. Promoters are located upstream of transcription start sites of genes and contain short consensus sequences, in bacteria, those are found at -10 (TATAAT) and -35 (TTGACA) positions relative to the transcription start site. Specifically, the σ1 region…

    Words: 1744 - Pages: 7
  • RNA Polymerases

    François Jacob and Jacques Monod explored how the regulation of transcription of DNA affects the enzyme levels in a cell. They found this information through experiments in eubacteria and eukaryotes. According to Kireeva (2013) “However, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase proved elusive until 1960, when it was independently identified in bacteria by Hurwitz and Stevens and in plants by the Bonner group” (p. 8325). There were also many experiments after these in which the scientists focused mostly…

    Words: 1199 - Pages: 5
  • Analysis Of Lamarck's Theory Of Deprivation

    How were the ancestors affected by a boy experiencing starvation between the ages of 9 - 11? Ans: In the case of the boys that experienced starvation between the ages of 9 to 11, it was observed that the grandchildren of those boys suffered from a much lower risk of heart disease (about 1/4th) and diabetes than normal. Thus, the grandchildren of the starved boys also enjoyed extended lifespans, sometimes by as much as 30 years. 2. What inheritable effect do they think the boy’s starvation…

    Words: 1689 - Pages: 7
  • Arabidopsis Thaliana Lab Report

    Then the miRNAs would be extracted from each of the three mediums using a Sigma mirPremier miRNA isolation kit and then analyzed using qt-PCR. The control used was the full media plate. The media type that the seeds were grown on was the independent variable in the experiment while the dependent variable was the different levels of miRNA expression. The plants were then collected into a tube and grinded in a lysis mix with a pestle. To isolate the small RNAs, the Sigma mirPremier miRNA isolation…

    Words: 882 - Pages: 4
  • Pyramidal CA1 Neurons

    gains in high-throughput sequencing, digital qPCR, enhanced genetic tools for Drosophila melanogaster, better mapping of genomes and a surge in bioinformatics tools to analyze gene expression. While I have previously looked at the broad gene expression differences, this data set is lacking the more subtle analysis of different transcript abundance of specific genes. It is known that a total gene expression count will mask transcript differences, thus occluding potentially significant…

    Words: 1222 - Pages: 5
  • Analysis Of Srgnet: Synergistic Response To Gene Mutations Network

    of Dapk1 in colorectal carcinoma through regulation of ligand-independent caspase activation (Forcet, et al., 2001). The pathways related to Notch signaling were the next significantly enriched biological pathways with practical implications in targeting cancer cells because of crosstalk with different developmental signaling pathways (Eberl, et al., 2012; Takebe, et al., 2015). Direct p53 effectors pathway was significantly enriched with several CRGs including Pmaip1, Scn3b, Perp, Rb1, Fas and…

    Words: 1126 - Pages: 5
  • Phonetic Alphabet

    Phonetics is the study and identification of speech sounds. The phonetic alphabet is not the same as the English alphabet, although there are many of the same characters. In the phonetic alphabet, there are 14 vowels sounds and 24 consonant phonemes. When speech-language pathologists use the phonetic alphabet for transcriptions with their clients, they are able to use the transcriptions to plan therapy lessons according to their speech and language disorders. Without the use of the phonetics,…

    Words: 862 - Pages: 4
  • Interview Transcription: A 29-Year-Old Man

    Interview Transcription Person 1 The first interviewee is a 29-year-old man, who originally from India. He is a single graduate student of Murray State University with Information System Major. His previous educations were a bachelor degree in Mathematics and an MBA in Marketing in India. He was born and raised in India and this is the first time he comes to the United States. Q: What does “being shy” mean to you? A: It means you are not talking to a person, hiding from that person. You won’t…

    Words: 1388 - Pages: 6
  • Pros And Cons Of Gene Control

    There are four broad stages to this process that include: promoter recognition, initiation, synthesis, and termination. Each stage of transcription determines something different about parts of gene expression. For example, transcription can be turned on or blocked from happening. Differences in initiation can decide if transcription even takes place or not. Also, synthesis could determine "how much" transcription is necessary. Positive control is the method that can help start the transcription…

    Words: 982 - Pages: 4
  • Cra Gene Lab Report

    hypothesized that ctrA is more conserved in closely related species and less conserved in not closely related species. The last hypothesis for this study is that the promoter regions of ctrA is more conserved in closely related species and less conserved in not closely related species. All sequenced genomes of alpha proteobacteria contain ctrA genes. CtrA regulates numerous events in the cell cycle. The metabolism and division of the cell wall, stalk synthesis, polar morphogenesis, initiation…

    Words: 801 - Pages: 4
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