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    Some experiments were aimed at finding how SOD1 becomes pro-apoptotic (promoting programmed cell death) due to the fact that healthy SOD1 are against programmed cell death (Pasinelli et al. 2004). The pro-apoptotic characteristic of mutant SOD1 is demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. The mitochondria inside cells firmly control apoptosis, and the mutant SOD1 that aggregates inside mitochondria triggers the programmed cell death of motor neurons (Pasinelli et al. 2004). One experiment studied proteins that interact with mutant SOD1, specifically Bcl-2 which is anti-apoptotic, in order to explain the apoptotic nature of mutant SOD1 (Pasinelli et al. 2004). The methods that were used involve in vitro approaches and Western blot analysis. The outcomes were that mutant SOD1 and Bcl-2 interact with each other in vivo in the spinal cord, and they both together are pro-apoptotic (Pasinelli et al. 2004). In other words, Bcl-2 was an anti-apoptotic protein when standing alone, and when it directly interacted with mutant SOD1, the protein and the gene convert to pro-apoptosis, or in support of cell death; this could be due to a conformational change in Bcl-2.…

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    Mitochondria and caspases are essential elements of the controlling mechanism of apoptosis 1. Caspases, a family of enzymes that are key effectors of apoptosis, are cysteine proteases that cut after aspartic acid residues. Several of these enzymes, like caspase 3 and caspase 7, are responsible for many of the effects of apoptosis. These effects include cell shrinkage, PS externalization, and membrane microvesiculation 2-5. Cytochrome C, a component of the electron transport chain, is normally…

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    Innate Immune System

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    been associated with gut homeostasis and determining the severity of inflammation in IBD. Inflammasomes are a set of intracellular protein complexes that enable activation of inflammatory caspases that are responsible for the processing of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that help with the initiation of an adaptive immunity response. Inflammasomes are key regulators in the innate system. Inflammasomes complexes have been divided in the NLR family or PYHIN family. There are 22 NLR genes in the…

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    pathways which include a death receptor-associated extrinsic pathway and a mitochondria- dependent intrinsic pathway. Caspases regulate the final execution of apoptosis in both pathways. In the extrinsic pathway, Caspase-8 initiates the cascade ultimately activating the final executioner caspase-3 (Earnshaw, 1999). In the intrinsic pathway, Caspase-8 can cleave Bid to generate truncated Bid to interact then with pro-apoptotic Bax for translocation and accumulation in mitochondria to initiate the…

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    Influenza Synthesis Essay

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    Intrinsic apoptotic marker caspase 9 and extrinsic apoptotic marker caspase 8 were cleaved and activated to be analyzed. Members of the Bcl-2 family, caspase 3, and Apad-1 were also analyzed. The results showed that in the infected cells, pro-caspase 8 degradation remained minimal after infection and was barely more apparent than the mock cells. 12 hours post infection Caspase 9 activated cleaved fragments were notable, and at 24 hours post infection were considerably greater. These results…

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    Epilepsy Case Studies

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    outer membrane and transition pore formation. So, any injury caused to the mitochondrial membrane leads to release of pro-apoptotic proteins (bax and bad), or the survival proteins (bcl-2 and bcl-x) or both (Graham et al., 2000). Expression Studies of brain tissue of neocortex and hippocampus of epilepsy patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) have confirmed the elevated levels of bcl-2 protein (Henshall et al., 2000, Xu et al., 2007; Dirnagel et al., 1999). A diverse response of bcl-2 was…

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    Essay On Pancreas

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    evaluate the pathogenesis of pancreatic toxicity induced by patulin exposure and the role of goji extract to eliminate its toxicity. It has been reported that the relationship of the endocrine–exocrine parts of the pancreas is a complex one because of the close anatomical and functional links. The impairment of the endocrine part of the pancreas has a marked effect upon its exocrine component. It was stated that islet hormones regulate acinar cell functions as they reach to them with portal…

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    Parvovirus Research Paper

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    entry of the endosome allowing phospholipase A2 to be synthesized and the virus to enter the cytoplasm (7). The next step in host cell infection is for the virus to enter the nucleus. In order for FPV to replicate inside the host cell, it must first gain access to the nucleus, which is guarded by the nuclear envelope. Evidence suggests that the virus enters the nucleus with its capsid protein still intact, so there must be a viral mechanism that breaks down the nuclear envelope. In their paper,…

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    Fruit Fly Lab Report

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    It was created specific for apoptosis of polar cells. Those cells are destined to die during the early development of Drosophila melanogaster. This can be done by proteolytic cleavage of essential proteins by Caspases, a group of aspartate-specific cysteine (Khammari, 2009). There are total 7 genes that code for Drosophila melanogaster. Caspases normally are inactivation mode by bounding to inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP). As soon as apoptotic stimuli are detected, IAPs will bind to its…

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    which may be confirmed by western blot analysis and real time quantitative PCR [31]. 2.5. Estimation of Heart weight and Body Weight Ratio:-In each group we measured the weight of the body at first and then weight of the heart on the day of sacrifice. Body weight was measured by weighing it on measuring kit (gm).Heart weight was measured by keeping heart at first on ice cold pack and blotting it out heart with the tissue paper. After we sacrifice the mice, the heart tissues were washed three…

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