partially dissociates and creates a dynamic equilibrium due to the instances when their ions recombine to form the original salts. An example of this is potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHC4H4O6 or KHT). When KHT is placed in water, it partially dissolves and forms K+ and HC4H4O6- ions. This reaction is shown below:
KHC_4 H_4 O_6 (s)⇄ K^+ (aq)+HC_4 H_4 O_6^- (aq)
The equilibrium constant of reaction (1) is written as Ksp or solubility product constant. The Ksp of reaction (1) is shown in the equation:
K_sp=[K^+ ][HC_4 H_4 O_6^-]
One of the purposes of the experiment is to determine the Ksp value…
metal atom and are called complex agents.
• Metal atoms are Lewis acids because they can accept pairs of electrons from Lewis bases.
• Within a ligand, the atom that is directly bonded to the metal atom/ion is called the donor atom.
• A coordinate covalent bond is a covalent bond in which one atom (i.e., the donor atom) gives both electrons. This type of bonding is different from a normal covalent bond in which each atom supplies one electron.
• If the coordination complex carries a net charge,…
wastewater derived from different industries such as petrochemical, food or resin manufactured.
Since common biological treatment for these kinds of compounds is not feasible, is important to develop new technologies to treat these recalcitrant molecules.
In this paper the authors studied the influence of chloride and sulfate anions on Fenton’s reaction of three representative phenol compounds: phenol, 2-chloro- and 2-nitrophenol.
The batch experiments were carried out with the phenol solution…
1. Calcium is the fifth common element in the earth’s crust, and is found predominantly in feldspar, calcite, dolomite, and apatite, as a primary and secondary mineral. Calcium is found in lime stone but is also added as lime and in fertilizers. However, Calcium is not added as the soil is insufficient in Calcium, but to increase the pH. Calcium is a macro-nutrient which is essential in plant growth, the functioning of root tips, and is a main constituent in the cell wall. The amount of Calcium…
conversion of as-synthesized Y to hierarchical MY by the proposed destructive-constructive method [----] and no leakage of Al and Si took place, therefore the hydrophilicity of the zeolite has been maintained.
3.2. Adsorption studies
3.2.1 The effect of pH on MB adsorption
In Fig. – the pH of initial solution on adsorption performance has been inspect in the range of 2-12 for both Y and MY zeolites. The pH dependent adsorption profile of them almost are the same. At more acidic and basic…
How the changing mass of solute effects the heat given out when dissolved in water
To investigate how the changing mass of a solute will affect the energy given out.
Dissolving is when a solute is mixed into a solvent to form a solution. Dissolving can be either endothermic or exothermic. Endothermic reactions happen when the energy given out when bonds are broken, is greater than the energy given out when bonds are made. As more energy is used and taken in, the surroundings…
water will be equal. This is because of the Law of Conservation of Mass. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that in any given chemical equation, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products. During a chemical reaction, the atoms/ions of the reactants are rearranged to form new products. Thus, chemical equations must always be balanced, with the same kinds and numbers of atoms/ions and mass on both sides of the arrow, meaning that the combined mass of the sodium…
This is a test to see if SO4 is present in the solution. If the
mixture has a white precipitate of Barium Sulfate, then the solution has a sulphate ion present (4).
Taking one of the remaining test tubes, add 0.1 mL of BaCl2 into the solution and mix well.
Fig 5. If HCl is present in the solution, bubbling and a strong smell of
ammonium should be present.
Using the remaining test tube, add 0.1 ml of HCl into the solution. Record your findings.
Record Conductivity using…
It can be lowered by lowering the pressure of the air of which will push down on the water so its molecules can escape into the air. The boiling point raised if a solute is dissolved into it. How much the boiling point is raised depends on how much of the solute there is. This makes the water dilute which means that most of the water molecules are at the bottom and few can escape. This is known as reducing vapor pressure of water. Table salt breaks into a sodium ion and chloride ion, so there…
For α-Quartz, its lattice symmetry is trigonal, and for β-Quartz, its lattice symmetry is hexagonal. For α-FePO4, its space group is P3121 and thus its lattice symmetry can be inferred to be also trigonal, just like α-Quartz. Similarly, β-FePO4 space group is P6422 and its lattice symmetry can be inferred to be hexagonal, just like β-Quartz. Although the chemical structures of quartz and FePO4 are different, with quartz having a formula of SiO2, they can actually be in the same…