Importance Of Coordination Compounds

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Coordination complex
A coordination compound is the result of the reaction of lewis acid and lewis base in which neutral molecules called ligands make coordinate covalent bond with middle metal atom. Ligands have one electron pair to donate to a metal atom and are called complex agents.
• Metal atoms are Lewis acids because they can accept pairs of electrons from Lewis bases.
• Within a ligand, the atom that is directly bonded to the metal atom/ion is called the donor atom.
• A coordinate covalent bond is a covalent bond in which one atom (i.e., the donor atom) gives both electrons. This type of bonding is different from a normal covalent bond in which each atom supplies one electron.
• If the coordination complex carries a net charge, the
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The coordination sphere is usually represented in such a way that it is enclosed in brackets when written in a formula.
The co-ordination number is the number of donor atoms attached to the central metal atom.
APPLICATIONS OF COORDINATION COMPOUNDS
The coordination compounds are of great value. These compounds are abundantly present in the mineral, plant and animal worlds and are known to have many important functions in the area of:
 analytical chemistry (environmental),
 metallurgy,
 biological systems,
 industry
 medicine.

Coordination compounds has many applications in qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis.
For the detection and estimation by classical and instrumental methods of analysis, the basis are provided by the common colour reactions given by metal ions.
•Examples of such reagents include EDTA, DMG (dimethylglyoxime), α–nitroso–β–naphthol, cupron
.
Coordination compounds in biological systems and biochemistry

Coordination compounds in biological systems are of great importance. Examples include :
• Vitamin B12
• Chlorophyll
• Haemoglobin
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They can control biological processes. For instance,
• carboxypeptidase is an hydrolytic enzyme important in digestion, contains a zinc ion coordinated to many amino acid residues of the protein.
• Another enzyme, catalase, which is an well-organized catalyst for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Because it contains iron-porphyrin complexes. In both cases, the coordinated metal ions are probably the sites of catalytic activity.
• Other coordination compounds in biological systems include chlorophyll and vitamin b12, a complex of cobalt with a macrocyclic ligand known as corrin.
• Hemoglobin also has iron-porphyrin complexes, its role is in oxygen carrier in living organisms.
Coordination compounds in industry
The applications of coordination compounds in chemistry and technology are many and wide-ranging.
• In dyes and pigments, the shinning and intense colors of many coordination compounds are used. For example Prussian blue color.
• Similarly, for fabrics phthalocyanine complexes having large ring ligands are important class of dyes.
• Metal complexes are made by several basic hydrometallurgical processes. For

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