Toxin

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  • Vulnificus Research Paper

    depends on the presence of these three virulence factors. Virulent forms are almost always encapsulated, serum resistant, and possessing the ability to acquire iron from iron-saturated transferrin, while avirulent variants lack these characteristics [29]. After the organism has entered the host and evaded host defenses, the organism replicates and produces toxins. These toxins as well as the organism’s pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are known as the damage-causing virulence factors. A surface lipoprotein (Ilpa) and flagellin have been identified as the PAMPs associated with V. vulnificus that lead to various cytokines (i.e. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF α) being released from macrophages [30]. This cytokine release is believed to mediate the systemic inflammatory response that is commonly seen with V. vulnificus infections, which causes damage to host tissues and cells [31]. Furthermore, the bacterium produces a toxin, referred to as RtxA1 [32]. RtxA1 is believed to trigger excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the host, which would lead to necrotic cell death and apoptosis [33]. Another toxin responsible for damage is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is found in the outer membrane of the organism [34]. LPS mediates the endotoxic shock associated with severe V. vulnificus disease, which can lead to death [35]. In addition, V. vulnificus also produces hemolysins and metallo-proteases. The hemolysins produced (VvhA) insert into the membrane of…

    Words: 842 - Pages: 4
  • Toxin Handling

    “Toxin handling” and well-being: The case of the human resources manager There are three main issues being discussed and studied in this article. Firstly, it looks at two contemporary HR managers’ roles: a formal role of strategic partner and an informal role of toxin handler (which under this article gives the meaning as a concerned manager who makes an attempt dealing with grievances and emotions arisen within the workplace). Secondly, the article addresses the impact of these dual roles on…

    Words: 1179 - Pages: 5
  • Botox-A Synthesis

    Cosmetic Use of Botulinum Toxin Type A Introduction Botulinum toxin was first identified as a cause of food poisoning over 100 years ago (Carruthers and Carruthers, 2009). Since then, there has been an identification of seven different serotypes labeled A-G; all produced by different strains of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum (Hurkadle et al., 2012). Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the main and most well-studied serotype that is used in cosmetic (Hurkadle et al., 2012). The BTX-A can be…

    Words: 2173 - Pages: 9
  • Bacillus Cereus Lab Report Answers

    Bacillus anthracis i. Bacillus anthracis is able to defend itself against phagocytosis because of its outer shell made out of poly-D-glutamic acid. This shell allows the bacteria to go through the body since the immune system does not register it as a harmful substance and protects the inner components of the bacteria (Mogridge 2007). ii. Anthrax toxin contains the protective antigen, edema factor, and the lethal factor. This combination allows the toxin to effectively attach and invade…

    Words: 1479 - Pages: 6
  • Fast Food Nation Book Review

    In the 2001 nonfiction book Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser unmasks the reality behind fast food industries by pointing out some of the consequences such as the change it has caused to several cities, deathly illnesses, and the gap between the rich and the poor; his purpose is to convince people to make the right decisions on their own (276). In chapter nine, Schlosser illustrates how some of the deadly diseases such as E. coli 0157:H7, foodborne pathogens, microbes, and Salmonella are spread…

    Words: 1097 - Pages: 5
  • Migraine Headache Research Paper

    cause tension headaches and it is stress. Only 3% of the US population suffer from this unpleasant chronic headache. Many people can 't dissociated the difference between migraines and tension headaches. Migraines tend to interfere with the nervous system affected the site, causing regurgitation and nausea. Tension headaches usually don 't associate with that type of interference. Not saying tension headaches are less harmful but episodic tension headaches can lead to migraines. Adding…

    Words: 1847 - Pages: 7
  • Summary Of Botulinum Toxin As A Biological Weapon

    Arnon, S. S., R. Schechter, T. V. Inglesby, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eit-zen, A. D. Fine, J. Hauer, M. Layton, S. Lillibridge, M. T. Osterholm, T. O. Toole, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, D. L. Swerdlow and K. Tonat (2001). Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. The Journal of the American Medical Association285: 1059-1070. Bhambhani, A. and C. V. Kumar (2006). Protein/DNA/inorganic materials: DNA binding to layered…

    Words: 1333 - Pages: 6
  • Chapter 2: Toxin-Based Animal Model

    CHAPTER 2 – ANIMAL MODELS 5. Animal models: 5.a. Neurotoxic Models: 5.a.1. 6- Hydroxydopamine model: One of the most frequently used toxin-based animal model is 6-OHDA. It was first isolated in 1950. It is frequently used in rats. It shows affinity for catecholaminergic transporter. For example, norepinephrine transporter and dopamine transporter. Though the structure of 6-OHDA is similar to dopamine but the existence of excess amount of hydroxyl group makes it toxic to dopaminergic neurons.…

    Words: 1559 - Pages: 7
  • Hidden Toxins In Your Home Essay

    Both, your physical and emotional environment are important determinants of your overall state of health and play a significant role in creating a healing environment for yourself and your immediate family members. Surrounding yourself with supportive people at home and choosing a caring medical team is crucial to your health and healing. It is equally important to make sure that your home and workplace are healthy and safe and as free of toxins and poisons as possible. Our natural environment…

    Words: 1521 - Pages: 7
  • The Harmful Effects Of Plastic Toxins On The Ocean And Environment

    exert its harmful and toxic effect on the marine wildlife as a result of ingesting the plastics, also from leaching of plastic toxins, and from getting entangled in…

    Words: 1146 - Pages: 5
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