Botulinum Toxin is categorized as a neurotoxin. Having a fatal dose of merely one to two micrograms it is considered one of the most lethal neurological agents known. The toxin is a microbial product synthesized by an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria Clostridium botulinum whose natural habitat is soil (Qiagen). There are seven antigenically distinguishable exotoxins differentiated by the use of the prefix BoNT followed by the letters A-G. Although each has a slightly different protein structure, the mechanism of action is fundamentally the same.
There are four main categories in which humans acquire the neurotoxin, three of which can be deadly if not diagnosed and treated promptly. The three organic routes of acquisition include…
The toxin was first discovered in 1735 Europe as it caused a fatal disease of the nervous system. Its cause was suspected to be connected to German Sausages. This is originally where its name came from, as due to these suspicions the toxin was named “botulus” – the Latin for sausage.
Since then we know that Botulinum Toxin is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by rod-shaped spore-forming anaerobic bacterium called Clostridium bacterium. The bacterium require special conditions to reproduce;…
What is botox
Botulinum neurotoxin is produced naturally by Clostridium botulinum, a gram positive spore forming bacteria. It has eight different serotypes named Type A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G. Botulinum toxin type A is the most powerful and longest acting of all and used widely for therapeutic purpose. It consists of two polypeptide chains : a heavy chain and a light chain linked together by a disulphide bond. It is synthesized in an inactive single peptide chain with a molecular mass of…
M. Perl, P. K. Russell, D. L. Swerdlow and K. Tonat (2001). Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. The Journal of the American Medical Association285: 1059-1070.
Bhambhani, A. and C. V. Kumar (2006). Protein/DNA/inorganic materials: DNA binding to layered α-Zirconium phosphate enhances bound protein structure and activity. Advanced Materials18: 939-942.
Bhambhani, A. and C. V. Kumar (2008). Enzyme-inorganic nanoporous materials: differential scanning…
Cosmetic Use of Botulinum Toxin Type A
Botulinum toxin was first identified as a cause of food poisoning over 100 years ago (Carruthers and Carruthers, 2009). Since then, there has been an identification of seven different serotypes labeled A-G; all produced by different strains of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum (Hurkadle et al., 2012). Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the main and most well-studied serotype that is used in cosmetic (Hurkadle et al., 2012). The BTX-A can be…
Bio II Bacteria Paper: Clostridium Botulinum
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes the illness, in humans known as botulism (Smith and Sugiyama, 1988). It produces a potent neurotoxin called botulinum toxin that causes botulism or foodborne botulism. The spores are heat resistant and can survive in foods that are incorrectly or poorly processed (FDA). There are seven recognized types of botulism (A-G) but only A, B, E, and F cause human…
Clostridium Botulinum is a single celled bacteria and has organelles, not bounded by a membrane. They are asexual and reproduce by binary fission. It belongs to Kingdom Bacteria because it has peptidoglycan in its cell wall. It is unicellular and lack nucleus. It is obligate anaerobe as well as have ability to produce by spore so it falls under Phylum Firmicutes. It is classified in class Clostridia and further in order Clostridiales due to its spore forming ability. It is…
Banish Your Crow's Feet Wrinkles With Botox Injections
One of the first places you may notice facial wrinkles is around your eyes. Crow's feet appear on the outside of the eyes because the skin is constantly folding when the muscles in that area contract when you squint, laugh, or smile. Crow's feet can develop at a fairly young age and they tend to get worse over time. Botox can reduce the appearance of these wrinkles and make you happier with your appearance. Here's how it can help.
can 't dissociated the difference between migraines and tension headaches. Migraines tend to interfere with the nervous system affected the site, causing regurgitation and nausea. Tension headaches usually don 't associate with that type of interference. Not saying tension headaches are less harmful but episodic tension headaches can lead to migraines.
Adding information, Botox has been around over 14 years approved by the FDA since 2002. Botox is not only for beauty but it has been a solution…