Botulinum toxin

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    Botulinum Toxin

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    Botulinum Toxin is categorized as a neurotoxin. Having a fatal dose of merely one to two micrograms it is considered one of the most lethal neurological agents known. The toxin is a microbial product synthesized by an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria Clostridium botulinum whose natural habitat is soil (Qiagen). There are seven antigenically distinguishable exotoxins differentiated by the use of the prefix BoNT followed by the letters A-G. Although each has a slightly different protein structure, the mechanism of action is fundamentally the same. There are four main categories in which humans acquire the neurotoxin, three of which can be deadly if not diagnosed and treated promptly. The three organic routes of acquisition include…

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     What is botox Botulinum neurotoxin is produced naturally by Clostridium botulinum, a gram positive spore forming bacteria. It has eight different serotypes named Type A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G. Botulinum toxin type A is the most powerful and longest acting of all and used widely for therapeutic purpose. It consists of two polypeptide chains : a heavy chain and a light chain linked together by a disulphide bond. It is synthesized in an inactive single peptide chain with a molecular mass of…

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    The toxin was first discovered in 1735 Europe as it caused a fatal disease of the nervous system. Its cause was suspected to be connected to German Sausages. This is originally where its name came from, as due to these suspicions the toxin was named “botulus” – the Latin for sausage. Since then we know that Botulinum Toxin is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by rod-shaped spore-forming anaerobic bacterium called Clostridium bacterium. The bacterium require special conditions to reproduce;…

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    M. Perl, P. K. Russell, D. L. Swerdlow and K. Tonat (2001). Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. The Journal of the American Medical Association285: 1059-1070. Bhambhani, A. and C. V. Kumar (2006). Protein/DNA/inorganic materials: DNA binding to layered α-Zirconium phosphate enhances bound protein structure and activity. Advanced Materials18: 939-942. Bhambhani, A. and C. V. Kumar (2008). Enzyme-inorganic nanoporous materials: differential scanning…

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    Botox-A Synthesis

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    Cosmetic Use of Botulinum Toxin Type A Introduction Botulinum toxin was first identified as a cause of food poisoning over 100 years ago (Carruthers and Carruthers, 2009). Since then, there has been an identification of seven different serotypes labeled A-G; all produced by different strains of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum (Hurkadle et al., 2012). Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the main and most well-studied serotype that is used in cosmetic (Hurkadle et al., 2012). The BTX-A can be…

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    Botulism Research Paper

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    Bio II Bacteria Paper: Clostridium Botulinum Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes the illness, in humans known as botulism (Smith and Sugiyama, 1988). It produces a potent neurotoxin called botulinum toxin that causes botulism or foodborne botulism. The spores are heat resistant and can survive in foods that are incorrectly or poorly processed (FDA). There are seven recognized types of botulism (A-G) but only A, B, E, and F cause human…

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    Clostridium Botulinum Clostridium Botulinum is a single celled bacteria and has organelles, not bounded by a membrane. They are asexual and reproduce by binary fission. It belongs to Kingdom Bacteria because it has peptidoglycan in its cell wall. It is unicellular and lack nucleus. It is obligate anaerobe as well as have ability to produce by spore so it falls under Phylum Firmicutes. It is classified in class Clostridia and further in order Clostridiales due to its spore forming ability. It is…

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    can 't dissociated the difference between migraines and tension headaches. Migraines tend to interfere with the nervous system affected the site, causing regurgitation and nausea. Tension headaches usually don 't associate with that type of interference. Not saying tension headaches are less harmful but episodic tension headaches can lead to migraines. Adding information, Botox has been around over 14 years approved by the FDA since 2002. Botox is not only for beauty but it has been a solution…

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    mother never faltered and always pushed forward trying to find the answer. We next pursued the muscular headache route. This involved trigger point injections which were many injections into the back of my head that numbed the nerves. These shots burned with a severity that I had never felt before but only for a short period of time. They relieved the back headache for only about a week after the treatment, so they decided it was ineffective for long term use and stopped that route. After…

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    Vulnificus Research Paper

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    depends on the presence of these three virulence factors. Virulent forms are almost always encapsulated, serum resistant, and possessing the ability to acquire iron from iron-saturated transferrin, while avirulent variants lack these characteristics [29]. After the organism has entered the host and evaded host defenses, the organism replicates and produces toxins. These toxins as well as the organism’s pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are known as the damage-causing virulence…

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