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    What is the photon detection efficiency (PDE) of a SiPM? Photon detection efficiency (PDE) refers to the probability that a photon arriving on the SiPM surface is detected, an initiates the process of current pulse generation. PDE is a function of the overvoltage ΔV across the terminals of the APD and wavelength λ of the incident photon. Photon detection efficiency is one of the most important characteristics of a SiPM. PDE is the product of three factors :- Geometrical fill factor (FF), Quantum Efficiency (QE) and Probability of a Geiger discharge. (Pt) PDE (Vov) = Qe x Pt (Vov) x FF Geometrical fill factor(FF) A SiPM is a pixelated device and all the pixels(microcells) are of the same size and arranged in a tiled pattern. The total area on which the pixels of the SiPM lie is its active area. But in each microcell, only a fraction of its area is photosensitive. This fraction of the photosensitive area, equated to the active area is refferd to as the Geometrical fill factor which ranges from ∼30% to ∼80%. The larger the size of the microcell, the higher the geometrical fill factor. Quantum efficiency (Qe)…

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    Photodetectors Essay

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    electromagnetic spectrum: the ultraviolet, visible and infrared, optical detectors are divided into two main categories: photon and thermal detectors. Photon detectors generate one electron for an incoming photon, which is detected by an electronic circuit, while thermal detectors convert optical energy to heat, which then generates an electrical signal.3 Herein, two types of photodetectors are examined: a PD and a PMT. Although…

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    h / p Where h is the Planck's constant This wavelength λ is called the de Broglie wavelength. The de Broglie hypothesis states that particles of matter also have wavelengths and can behave as waves, like photons .According to String ,both types of particles demonstrated the vibrating strings, but 50 years before. Here was de Broglie’s line of…

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    Quantum Entanglement is the theory that there are microscopic particles, usually used to reference particles of light called photons, that are linked together either through some sort of signal or through a different dimension, usually through the fourth dimension. Brian Clegg calls Quantum Entanglement, in the field of physics, or better yet quantum physics, a concept that is so bizarre and so fundamental that he calls it the God Effect. For Quantum Entanglement the effect of one particle…

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    Chemistry In The 1800's

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    observing it. Often, many elements can have similar emission spectra’s, which is why Kirchhoff invented the Spectrometer. This is a specialized device that uses a prism and two mirrors that allow the light to be conducted into its unique emission spectra. From elements such as lithium to others like selenium, every single element has its own unique color or elemental fingerprint; this is called the emission spectrum. When using a spectrometer, it can be confusing to many what it is they are…

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    materials. 2.5.1.Calculation of Band gap from UV absorption spectrum The UV-Visible spectrum were used to study the optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles, from this the band gap and the type of electronic transitions were determined. When a semiconductor absorbs photons of energy larger than the gap of the semiconductor , an electron is transferred from the valence band to the conduction band and there occurs an abrupt increase in the absorbency of the material to the…

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    Scanning Electron Analysis

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    scattered from a molecule or crystal, most photons are elastically scattered. The scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and, therefore, wavelength, as the incident photons. However, a small fraction of light (approximately 1 in 107 photons) is scattered at optical frequencies different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident photons. The process leading to this inelastic scatter is termed the Raman Effect. Raman scattering can occur with a change in vibrational,…

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    microscope by UV laser pulses. These electron pulses are accelerated inside the microscope and incident on the sample under study together with visible laser pulses. The photon-electron coupling between the optical pulses and the electron pulses takes place when the energy-momentum conservation condition is satisfied (27, 28). This inelastic interaction leads to gain/loss of photon quanta via electron packets, which can be resolved in the electron energy spectrum consisting of discrete peaks,…

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    This effectively increases the length of the arms to 1120 km[2].In addition to the length of the arms, another aspect that greatly influences the LIGO interferometer is the output power of the laser. Sensitivity depends on the arm length and the resolution depends on the laser power. This is because as the power of the laser increases, more photons are generated. When higher number of photons merge at the beam splitter, sharper interference pattern is generated. According to theoretical…

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    Albert Einstein's influence on astronomy. Albert had a big influence on Astronomy. He started to study mathematics, he was lured toward calculus around 1891. Albert originally wanted to be a electrical engineer. But he failed to do pass an examination which would have allowed him to study for a diploma at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in Zurich. He made a plan of graduating as a teacher in mathematics and physics. He got his PHD in 1905. He also created the theory of relativity. A…

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