Photon

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    What is the photon detection efficiency (PDE) of a SiPM? Photon detection efficiency (PDE) refers to the probability that a photon arriving on the SiPM surface is detected, an initiates the process of current pulse generation. PDE is a function of the overvoltage ΔV across the terminals of the APD and wavelength λ of the incident photon. Photon detection efficiency is one of the most important characteristics of a SiPM. PDE is the product of three factors :- Geometrical fill factor (FF), Quantum Efficiency (QE) and Probability of a Geiger discharge. (Pt) PDE (Vov) = Qe x Pt (Vov) x FF Geometrical fill factor(FF) A SiPM is a pixelated device and all the pixels(microcells) are of the same size and arranged in a tiled pattern. The total area on which the pixels of the SiPM lie is its active area. But in each microcell, only a fraction of its area is photosensitive. This fraction of the photosensitive area, equated to the active area is refferd to as the Geometrical fill factor which ranges from ∼30% to ∼80%. The larger the size of the microcell, the higher the geometrical fill factor. Quantum efficiency (Qe)…

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    Quantum Entanglement is the theory that there are microscopic particles, usually used to reference particles of light called photons, that are linked together either through some sort of signal or through a different dimension, usually through the fourth dimension. Brian Clegg calls Quantum Entanglement, in the field of physics, or better yet quantum physics, a concept that is so bizarre and so fundamental that he calls it the God Effect. For Quantum Entanglement the effect of one particle…

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    Scanning Electron Analysis

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    scattered from a molecule or crystal, most photons are elastically scattered. The scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and, therefore, wavelength, as the incident photons. However, a small fraction of light (approximately 1 in 107 photons) is scattered at optical frequencies different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident photons. The process leading to this inelastic scatter is termed the Raman Effect. Raman scattering can occur with a change in vibrational,…

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    Cooper Boundaries

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    in response to temperature and pressure changes. They typically have a density, viscosity, and diffusivity (a substance’s ability to diffuse) that is in-between gases and liquids. Supercritical fluids have no surface tension, and are miscible. Photonic matter is just as it sounds: matter composed of photons. Unlike all the previously-mentioned nonclassical states of matter, photonic matter occurs naturally in sunlight without human intervention. Because photons have so much energy, they interact…

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    reciprocal of wavelength v= 1/λ wave numbers are often used characterized infrared radiation with the units given in cm^(-1) Particle properties of electromagnetic radiation Matter undergoes change in energy when it absorbs electromagnetic radiation. The interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter is simplest to understand if we consider that radiation consist of a beam of energetic particles called as photons. When a photon is absorbed by a sample it is destroyed, and its energy…

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    The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom Introduction: The theory of quantum mechanics explains the behavior of the particles, such as photons (particles of light) and electrons, in the atomic and subatomic realms. Since the electrons of an atom determine many of its chemical and physical properties, quantum mechanics is foundational to understanding chemistry. Quantum-Mechanical Model- a model that explains the strange behavior of electrons Electromagnetic Radiation- a type of energy…

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    Light is an electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by humans. Electromagnetic radiation happens in an extremely large range of wavelengths from gamma rays to radio waves. Within that spectrum the wavelengths visible to humans are few. Light is very difficult to define, in the sense that scientist have been arguing weather light is a particle or a wave. Many experiments have been done to proof weather light is a particle or a wave. The truth is that light sometimes acts as a wave and…

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    physics and makes a story about it, making it more understandable. Key Idea 1 Bosons are particles that follow Bose-Einsteins statistics. It makes up one of the two classes of particles, the other is fermions. Fermions are electrons, neutrons, and protons. Boson is mesons, alpha particles, and photons. Boson statistics do not restrict the number of them that occupy the same quantum state. There are two levels of states, excited state and ground state. Quantum states are controlled by…

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    In order to find the answer to this question, it must be broken down. What are photons? How does gravity affect light? What is a black hole? A photon is typically seen as a particle or wave representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photon carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency but has zero rest mass. Photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics. However, it is important to know that photons have both the qualities of waves and particles…

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    Gating Pulse Synthesis

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    2 A &B) due to the long pulse duration of the original electron pulses (~500 fs) respect to the gating window (~30fs). Therefore, we will use the same principle of the electron-photon coupling cross-correlation measurement to temporally characterize the gated electron pulse as explained earlier, utilizing another laser (NIR) pulse. The principle of this experiment is illustrated in Fig. 3A, which can be explained as follows; the gating optical pulse will maintain at τ_Vis=0fs to generate the…

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