Analysis Of The Quantum-Mechanical Model Of The Atom

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The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom

Introduction:

The theory of quantum mechanics explains the behavior of the particles, such as photons (particles of light) and electrons, in the atomic and subatomic realms. Since the electrons of an atom determine many of its chemical and physical properties, quantum mechanics is foundational to understanding chemistry.

Quantum-Mechanical Model- a model that explains the strange behavior of electrons
Electromagnetic Radiation- a type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magnetic fields
Amplitude- (of a wave) is the vertical height of a crest. The amplitude of the electric and magnetic field waves in light determines the light’s intensity or brightness.
Greater amplitude = greater intensity
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Ultraviolet light carries enough energy to damage biological molecules but is not as strong as gamma rays.
Visible light- (at low to moderate intensities) does not carry enough energy to damage biological molecules
Infrared Radiation- (IR) the heat felt when you place your hand near a hot object.
All warm bodies emit infrared light
Microwaves- wavelength which is longer than that of infrared light and therefore has less energy
Efficiently absorbed by water → can heat substances which contain water
Used for radars and microwave ovens

Radio Waves- The longest type of wavelength
Used to transmit the signals responsible for AM and FM radio
Cell phone, television, etc.
Interference- when wavelengths cancel each other out or build each other up
Constructive Interference- when two wavelengths of equal amplitude are “in phase” when they interact (they align with overlapping crests) a wave with twice the amplitude
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Photoelectric Effect- the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them
Photon (quantum)- a packet of light
Emission Spectrum- a series of bright lines
De Broglie Relation- the wavelength of an electron is Planck’s Constant: (6.62610-34m2kg/s) divided by mass times velocity

Complementary Properties- the wave nature and particle nature of the electron are said to be complementary properties, they exclude one another
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle- the product of x and mv must be greater than or equal to a finite number (h/4)
Deterministic- the present determines the future
Indeterminacy- behavior that can only be described statistically
Orbital- a probability distribution map showing where an electron is likely to be found
Wave Function- a mathematical function that describes the wavelike nature of an electron
Quantum Number- each orbital is specified by three interrelated quantum numbers
Principal Quantum Number- n
Angular Momentum Quantum Number- l
Magnetic Quantum Number- ml
Spin Quantum Number- ms
Specifies the orientation of the spin of the electron
Principal Level (Shell)- orbitals with the value of n are said to be on the same principal

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