Photoreceptor cell

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    Retinal Photoreceptors

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    The retinal photoreceptors and retinal ganglion are only a couple of synapse distant apart but the responses from the ganglion cells are more diverse than the ones observed from the photoreceptor (1). The bipolar cells serve as a direct pathway linking the ganglion cells and the photoreceptors. Bipolar cells are retinal interneurons that have two protrusions, one that goes up and one that goes down. This structure layout is an indicator of the cells function, they link the inner and outer retina. The bipolar cells contact photoreceptors and transmit the signals to the inner plexiform layer of the retina. The inner plexiform layer is where the axon terminals of different bipolar cells arrange into one specific inner plexiform layer and give synaptic signals to amacrine and retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cells are neurons that conduct output signals while the amacrine cells presynaptic side inhibit the terminals of bipolar ells and the postsynaptic side inhibits the dendrites of…

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    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is very a important part of the eye; It is responsible for absorption of scattered light, the visual cycle and phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment membranes. The protein RPE65 is normally abundantly made in the RPE, unless there is a mutation in the RPE65 gene, caused by a deletion of 4 base pairs. This deletion causes a frame shift and also an early stop on the protein, so the protein is shorter and does not function properly. The mutated gene is…

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    Are dogs colorblind? the answer yes/ no, they see in color, just not the way humans do due to the lack of certain cones in their eyes. Moreover, how does color blindness work in humans? To see how color works we first have to analyze how we perceive color. The way we see “Color” is determined by the wavelength of a stream of light. This means that each color of light has its own wavelength. The combination of all lightwaves (primary colors) produces white. The absence of lightwaves makes an…

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    The rods and cones are two types of photoreceptors in the human retina. The retina is a tissue lining inside of the eye that absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain. There are millions of receptor cells in the retina that control the sensitivity to light. The rods and cones are two types of receptors that are found in the retina. They both play an important significant to the luminosity humans use to see. When light is passed through the eye, rods and cones are…

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    children carry them. No longer are they just devices used to make a call; they are an extension of our selves. These media devices are pocket-sized computers that allow for multiple connections and interactions to be happening concurrently. This is a remarkable tool. It can also be a deadly tool. “We shape our tools and afterwards our tools shape us,” (Marshall McLuhan, n.d.). The fault is not in the device, but the user that makes it dangerous. A stunning video, done by Volkswagen (2014),…

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    prosthetic focuses on correcting one part of the visual mechanism so that the entire mechanism can function as a whole. Visual prosthetics fall under two different categories. The first category includes prosthetics that are implanted in the eye. These usually require less invasive surgery for installation than optic nerve implants because surgery involves only the eye and does not require tampering with the skull around the eye (Pezaris et al, 2009). Research on in-eye prosthetics mainly…

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    light then passes through the pupil, a small opening in the center of the eye. Surrounding the pupil is the iris. This is the colored part of your eye that is responsible for regulating the light intensity that comes in contact with the pupil by constricting or dilating. For example, if you walk outside on a sunny day from a dark room you might find yourself squinting for a few seconds until your iris dilates adjusting to the greater amount of light. The lens is a structure located behind the…

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    The artwork I choose is Pebbles around a Hole. The artist is Andy Goldsworthy. He was born in Britain in 1956. He created Pebbles around a Hole in 1987. The medium used is chromogenic print. The size is 65.5 x 67 cm. The location is unknown. The subject matter is an eye. The black hole is the pupil and the colored rings around it are the colored parts of the eye. I see it as an eye looking at us while we do not know what could possibly be looking back at us. The eye could also be looking deep…

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    It is the main factor causing irreversible blindness in the old aged people. Macular degeneration may be limited to one or both of the eyes. The main cause of loss of vision is decrease in function of rods and cones (these cells are responsible for vision) with passage of age. Signs and symptoms: The main complaint of macular degeneration is loss of central vision but the patient never becomes completely blind. The initial complaint is blurred vision; straight objects appear to be bent.…

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    How Does Ocular Dominance Affect the Way We See Things? Eyes are what allow our brains to process information, whether it’s to see color or to give the ability to read. They are organs that even allow us to evaluate our health, and can be used to express emotion. Everyone has them and each one is different, but they share a common purpose, and it’s important to know how they work. Light passes through the cornea of the eye, which has the job of protecting the eye and refracting the light so…

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