In the Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of norbornene, water and sulfuric acid were added to the C=C double bond to form norborneol. Sulfuric acid acted as a catalyst, where it was not consumed in the reaction and helped to propel the reaction forward, as it was vital in forming hydronium ion and breaking the double bond. Both the products endo-norborneol and exo-norborneol were synthesized; however regioselectivity and stereoselectivity played a role as to which product was more preferred and whether the equatorial or axial orientation of the hydroxy group was favored.The setup of the Cold-Finger, and the ability of norborneol to sublime readily allowed for the purification of the crude product to obtain the diastereomeric products exo- and endo-norborneol. Because the products were diastereomers, their physical properties differed and a melting point could be obtained. The melting point was verification of the favored direction of this reaction, and the results from the experiment gravitated towards exo-norborneol. Overall, the mechanism demonstrated in this experiment illustrated the ‘accepted’ or simple mechanistic pathway. In actuality, the acid-catalyzed hydration of norbornene has several other complications that are discussed further along this report.
In closer detail, the protonation of water by sulfuric acid when mixed together generated the hydronium ion that was used to protonate the alkene, as well as the bisulfate ion that was used to deprotonate and stabilize water…
Experiment 1: Alkanes & alkenes: Combustion and action of sulphuric acid.
To make careful observations and compare the difference(s) between alkanes and alkenes.
Hydrocarbons are composed exclusively of oxygen and hydrogen. There are three types of homogeneous hydrocarbons (whose members differ by one CH2 unit): alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. The difference between these three groups is in the bond types between the carbons. Alkanes form only single bonds, alkenes…
Combustion of Alkanes
What is combustion?
Combustion is a chemical process where a fuel reacts with oxygen and releases heat. The fuel can either be a solid, liquid or gas and the oxidizer, the source of oxygen can also be a solid liquid or gas. A new chemical substance is created from the fuel and source of oxygen. These new chemical substances are referred to as exhaust.
For combustion to occur, a fuel, oxygen and heat are required.
In an alkane, the more carbon atoms that are present, the…
of only carbon and hydrogen atoms, the three main types of hydrocarbons are alkanes, alkenes, alkynes. Alkanes consist of hydrocarbons in which all bonds are single bonds, hence meaning that Alkanes are saturated molecules as they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms available to bond with the carbon atoms, the simplest of the alkanes, being methane as shown in figure 1.
Figure 1: Methane- Lewis Structure
In the presence of oxygen, alkanes produce two products, water and…
Combustion, a chemical reaction between substances, usually including oxygen and usually accompanied by the generation of heat and light in the form of flame. The hydrocarbons become harder to ignite as the molecules get bigger. Combustion of alkanes with bigger molecule will produce more soot as the percentage of carbon of the molecule is higher. The amount of soot produced depends on the percentage of carbon in a hydrocarbon molecule. Hexane and cyclohexene produced very small of light soot…
of M. concanensis leaves
No Peak values Intensity
range Intensity Group assignment Functional groups
1 3972.43 0.0086 Unknown
2 3859.33 0.0412 Unknown
3 3805.79 0.0733 Unknown
4 3396.46 0.9280 Medium N-H stretch Amides, alcohols and amines
5 2987.43 0.2450 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes and acids
6 2946.27 0.2810 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes and acids
7 2912.38 0.2040 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes
8 2834.49 0.3170 Weak C-H stretch Aldehydes and acids
9 2524.07 0.0337 Medium O-H stretch…
dioxide (CO2), whose chemical name is identical to its common, as well as water (H2O), or dihydrogen monoxide. Put together, that says: dimethylmethane and five dioxygen yields three carbon dioxide and four dihydrogen monoxide. In order to have his chemical equation be balanced, three coefficients must be added. For example, the coefficient of 5 means that 5 oxygen molecules are needed in order to have the same amount of oxygen on both sides. There are only three different atoms in the equation,…
This, coupled with the 454 mg of isopentyl acetate produced experimentally, resulted in a 36.97% yield. This low percent yield occurs because complete transfer of product is nearly impossible during extraction and decanting. Correspondingly, water, which was a minor product, was removed from the isopentyl acetate. This separation would have correlated to a lower percent yield, as only the major product was taken into consideration. The IR spectrum revealed peaks indicative of isopentyl acetate.…
The phytochemical analysis conducted on Cassia fistula revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like tannins, flavonoid, carbohydrate, saponins, glycosides and phenol in the leaf extract while tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, saponins, glycosides, phenol and terpenoid in the stem bark.
Interestingly, FTIR analysis between 400 – 4000 cm-1 range showed compound with characteristic absorption bands at 3432 cm-1 for alkyne group, 1614 cm-1 for olefin and 1513 cm-1 for arene , 1240 cm-1 for…
Unknown A behave like alkane group that produced a clean flame and undergoes complete combustion to release carbon dioxide and water, while unknown B behave like alkene sustains incomplete combustion which produced a dirty flame that has more intensity of light and shoot.
Next, reaction with bromine was a common application of halogenation. Hexane will react with bromine only under the free radical condition which indicate must expose to the sunlight as this is a photochemical reaction. With…