In the Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of norbornene, water and sulfuric acid were added to the C=C double bond to form norborneol. Sulfuric acid acted as a catalyst, where it was not consumed in the reaction and helped to propel the reaction forward, as it was vital in forming hydronium ion and breaking the double bond. Both the products endo-norborneol and exo-norborneol were synthesized; however regioselectivity and stereoselectivity played a role as to which product was more preferred and whether the equatorial or axial orientation of the hydroxy group was favored.The setup of the Cold-Finger, and the ability of norborneol to sublime readily allowed for the purification of the crude product to obtain the diastereomeric products exo- and endo-norborneol. Because the products were diastereomers, their physical properties differed and a melting point could be obtained. The melting point was verification of the favored direction of this reaction, and the results from the experiment gravitated towards exo-norborneol. Overall, the mechanism demonstrated in this experiment illustrated the ‘accepted’ or simple mechanistic pathway. In actuality, the acid-catalyzed hydration of norbornene has several other complications that are discussed further along this report.
In closer detail, the protonation of water by sulfuric acid when mixed together generated the hydronium ion that was used to protonate the alkene, as well as the bisulfate ion that was used to deprotonate and stabilize water…
Experiment 1: Alkanes & alkenes: Combustion and action of sulphuric acid.
To make careful observations and compare the difference(s) between alkanes and alkenes.
Hydrocarbons are composed exclusively of oxygen and hydrogen. There are three types of homogeneous hydrocarbons (whose members differ by one CH2 unit): alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. The difference between these three groups is in the bond types between the carbons. Alkanes form only single bonds, alkenes…
a. The solubility of primary alcohols in water compared to that of alkanes. Explain the difference in terms of intermolecular forces.
Solubility of alcohols in water
Small alcohols are completely soluble in water; mixing the two in any proportion generates a single solution. However, solubility decreases as the length of the hydrocarbon chain in the alcohol increases. At four carbon atoms and beyond, the decrease in solubility is noticeable; a two-layered substance may appear in a test tube when…
Combustion of Alkanes
What is combustion?
Combustion is a chemical process where a fuel reacts with oxygen and releases heat. The fuel can either be a solid, liquid or gas and the oxidizer, the source of oxygen can also be a solid liquid or gas. A new chemical substance is created from the fuel and source of oxygen. These new chemical substances are referred to as exhaust.
For combustion to occur, a fuel, oxygen and heat are required.
In an alkane, the more carbon atoms that are present, the…
simple and cheap. Bomb calorimeters are a more advanced way to more efficiently measure the heat released by combustion reactions. A bomb calorimeter is a sealed vessel that contains a smaller container called a "bomb." The bomb is a container designed to withstand high pressure, and is equipped with valves for adding gases and electrical contacts for initiating combustion reactions (Learner.org, 2017). “Calorimetry has a very broad range of applicability, with examples ranging from drug design…
of only carbon and hydrogen atoms, the three main types of hydrocarbons are alkanes, alkenes, alkynes. Alkanes consist of hydrocarbons in which all bonds are single bonds, hence meaning that Alkanes are saturated molecules as they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms available to bond with the carbon atoms, the simplest of the alkanes, being methane as shown in figure 1.
Figure 1: Methane- Lewis Structure
In the presence of oxygen, alkanes produce two products, water and…
Combustion, a chemical reaction between substances, usually including oxygen and usually accompanied by the generation of heat and light in the form of flame. The hydrocarbons become harder to ignite as the molecules get bigger. Combustion of alkanes with bigger molecule will produce more soot as the percentage of carbon of the molecule is higher. The amount of soot produced depends on the percentage of carbon in a hydrocarbon molecule. Hexane and cyclohexene produced very small of light soot…
of M. concanensis leaves
No Peak values Intensity
range Intensity Group assignment Functional groups
1 3972.43 0.0086 Unknown
2 3859.33 0.0412 Unknown
3 3805.79 0.0733 Unknown
4 3396.46 0.9280 Medium N-H stretch Amides, alcohols and amines
5 2987.43 0.2450 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes and acids
6 2946.27 0.2810 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes and acids
7 2912.38 0.2040 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes
8 2834.49 0.3170 Weak C-H stretch Aldehydes and acids
9 2524.07 0.0337 Medium O-H stretch…
Calibration 1: Text
Cyclohexane is a six carbon cyclic alkane that is unusually stable compared to other cyclic alkanes. This stability can be seen by examining cyclohexane in its chair conformation. Since cyclohexane consists of all sp3 hybridized carbons, it ideally exists with 109.5-degree bond angles. If cyclohexane were planar, it would be forced to have 120-degree angels, and would therefore have angle strain. However, cyclohexane chair conformations are almost completely free of angle…
When a hydrogen atom of an alkane is replaced by halogens, they become an alkyl halide compound which can also be called haloalkanes. There are two types of reaction within the alkyl halides. When another atom replaces the halide ion, the reaction becomes a substitution reaction, and when the halide ion leaves with another atom or ion, it becomes an elimination reaction (Weldegirma, 2015). The substitution reaction can be divided into either electrophilic substitution or nucleophilic…