Trehalose

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  • Tardigrade Essay

    metabolism as the organism dries up and (usually) becomes a form referred to as a “tun”. These states are anhydrobiosis (induced by dry environment), cryobiosis (cold), osomobiosis (changes in osmolarity), and anoxybiosis (lack of oxygen). Of these, anhydrobiosis, osmobiosis, and cryobiosis are considered “true cryptobiosis”, as they entail formation of a tun. Anhydrobiosis involves a loss of both “free water” within the aqueous solutions in the body, as well as the “bound water”, which maintains the structure of nucleic acids, membrane phospholipids, and proteins, and is believed to be replaced by compounds such as trehalose, and glycerol (Kinchin 1994). Anhydrobiosis may be maintained for up to around a decade and recovered from within a few minutes to hours (Jönsson 2001). Cryobiosis allows for the freezing of the organism, and may be mediated by intracellular trehalose synthesis, as well as other cryoprotectants allowing for the vitrification, or otherwise lowering the molecular activity of the cytoplasmic water to avoid freezing (Wright 2001). It is unknown for sure if it is tolerance of intracellular freezing by the synthesis of these cryoprotectants or protective dehydration that allow survival in this state (Hengherr et al. 2009). It should be noted that although anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis are similar, they are different in that during freezing 25% of water in the tardigrade body is not removed, as it is considered “non-freezable”, while in anhydrobiosis, it is…

    Words: 1968 - Pages: 8
  • Artificial Insemination (AI): Case Study

    others fructose or glucose, as constituent of the citrate diluent (Salamon and Maxwell, 2000). Results obtained by Mohammed et al. (2012) revealed that, Na. Citrate diluent was significantly lower (P< 0.05) enhanced with the supplementation of trehalose and sucrose to the basic semen extenders. Jafaroghli et al. (2011) reported that, an increase in sugar (sucrose, trehalose or raffinose) concentrations, all post-thawed sperm characteristics were improved significantly. The authors…

    Words: 5715 - Pages: 23
  • Pyrenehexanoic Acid Synthesis Lab Report

    1-pyrenehexanoic acid was used as the 5-carbon linker and fluorescent component of the target molecule "PYRET-5". This molecule was purchased pure along with the sugar Trehalose, the molecule to which the pyrene was to be attached. Other reactants and solvents include HATU, HBTU, N, N-Diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA), sodium azide, Dimethylformamide (DMF), and Diphenyl phosphoryl chloride and were bought pure or used as received. All reactions were run at room temperature (298.15 K) and standard…

    Words: 1556 - Pages: 7
  • Essay On Water Bears

    While in this state, their metabolism lowers and their water content drops. Their ability to remain desiccated for long periods of time is dependent on the levels of “non-reducing sugar trehalose, which protects their membranes.” While in cryptobiosis, tardigrades are known as a tun. They can survive in this state for a very long time only reanimating when they come into contact with…

    Words: 972 - Pages: 4
  • What Is The Selection Of Excipients Of Tamoxifen Citrate?

    The disadvantages of SLN are lack of physical stability such as agglomeration and fusion of particles and chemical stability such as oxidation of lipids during long-term storage. Freeze drying is a process of water removal from frozen samples by sublimation under vacuum. Freezing and drying generate stress on nanoparticles which can destabilize them. Cryoprotectants have been used to decrease SLN aggregations due to the stress during the process of freeze-drying. In this study, four different…

    Words: 1156 - Pages: 5
  • Taco Bell Case Analysis

    consumed 12 percent of the meat. The other ingredients Taco Bell use include the following: Maltodextrin, a form of mildly sweet sugar used to balance flavor and is also found in natural soda; torula yeast, a form of yeast that gives the beef a more savory taste; modified corn starch, which is derived from corn and used and is used as a thickener and to maintain moisture; soy lecithin, which helps to bind the substances that would otherwise separate; sodium phosphates, is used to make sure the…

    Words: 1212 - Pages: 5
  • Molecular Chaperones Research Paper

    One of them is the use of small molecular chaperones that are divided into chemical chaperones and pharmacological chaperones. Small molecular chaperones are, as their name indicates, small compounds that by counteracting protein aggregate formation promote correct protein folding and stabilization. The chemical chaperones create an environment that favors correct folding of proteins and decreases the amount of unproductive interactions between proteins. Examples of chemical chaperones are…

    Words: 1591 - Pages: 7
  • Benefits Of Butterflies

    fuel daily activities. The sucrose content within the nectar plays a significant role in maximizing the rate at which the butterflies gain energy. It is known for a fact that 35-40% of sucrose maximizes the rate of energy gain. The nectar provides essential sugars such as glucose, sucrose, and fructose, which is then converted into fat and that fat is the energy source that they use to fly down to Texas and then into Mexico. During the migration period, these butterflies are able to acquire…

    Words: 1058 - Pages: 4
  • Barley Case Study

    Methods 1. Treatment of barley with endophyte. • Five types of Barley were treated with the endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens L321. • They were innoculated with the seed coating mixture ( 4% sodium alginate and 1% skimmed milk powder) without the bacteria. The bacteria were grown up overnight in LB broth supplemented with 3% trehalose (400ml per strain) , centrifuged and then added and then resuspended in the coating mixture. • 30ml of inoculant mixture was then added to 1kg of seed in a…

    Words: 1081 - Pages: 5
  • Cationic Surfactant Essay

    Higher solubilization capacity than synthetic surfactants . Low toxicity . It is hydrophilic in nature 5. Methods of identification HPLC,ESI-MS(electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy), MALDI-TOF-MS. (ref-Rikalovic et al.2015,Nguyen et al.2011) 4.2 Sophorolipids 1.Producing organism Candida bombicola,Candida apicola 2.Structure 3.Structural properties There are two conformation of sophorolipids.Both lactonic and acidic sophorolipids have ST reduction activity ,it is hydrophobic in nature…

    Words: 887 - Pages: 4
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