Substantia nigra

    Page 5 of 7 - About 67 Essays
  • Case Study: The Direct Pathway

    The basal ganglia (BG) receives input at the striatum from the cortex and provides output from the pallidum, in particular the globus pallidus internal (GPi) via the ventral anterior and lateral (VA/VL) thalamic nuclei to the cortex – forming a motor loop.1,2 There are two major pathways in this motor loop, the direct and indirect pathways.1,2 The direct pathway originates in the cortex, projecting to the striatum of the BG which consists of the caudate and putamen nuclei.1,2 The striatum…

    Words: 735 - Pages: 3
  • The Monoamine Theory

    6) The monoamine theory of depression foresees the underlying pathophysiologic source for depression is the diminution of levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine within the central nervous system (National Center for Biotechnology Information). Indication for this hypothesis is sustained with clinical trials and animal testing. Barchas, J., and Altemus, M. (1999) Monoamine Hypotheses of Mood Disorders Retrieved from 7) NOT DONE 8) The…

    Words: 944 - Pages: 4
  • Treatment For Parkinson's Disease

    Parkinson’s disease is a disorder that renders the central nervous system and motor cortex of the brain to become classified as a movement disorder. Symptoms from Parkinson’s may include muscles becoming tense and contracted leading people to feel pain or stiffness. Other symptoms may include a stooped posture, a slow shuffling walk, inability to keep motion, and postural instability leading to a development of a stooped position. Although doctors cannot link what exactly leads to Parkinson’s to…

    Words: 907 - Pages: 4
  • Awakenings Movie Review Essay

    The film Awakenings is an evidence to the ambition of a neurologist who temporarily gave back “freedom” to his post-encephalitis patients, paralyzed by Parkinson’s disease for decades, attending with what was considered a miracle drug: L-dopa. These awakenings opened his eyes to the tragedy: the transition of time that not all of the patients could admit to having lost. The difference between the benefits and unfavorable side effects, however noticeable they seem, is a difficult area in the…

    Words: 866 - Pages: 4
  • Delirium: A Case Study

    Delirium is a subacute fluctuating disturbance of consciousness characterized by disorientation, inattention, disordered thinking, cognitive impairment, emotional lability, hallucinations or delusions, and sleep-wake cycle disturbance (DynaMed, 2016). Delirium can occur in patients of all ages, but the highest incidence is seen in older patients 65 years and above (DynaMed, 2016). Delirium can be recognized by five key elements namely: (1) Disturbance in attention and awareness; (2) Develops…

    Words: 773 - Pages: 4
  • Stem Cell Case Study

    In the image on the lower right corner, you can distinguish that the nerve cells within the Sustantia Nigra have been destroyed as the crescent-shaped cell mass is not present. Whereas in the top right corner image you are able to clearly distinguish that crescent-shaped cell mass which contains nerve cells that contribute to body movements (Medlineplus…

    Words: 1828 - Pages: 8
  • The Awakening: Movie Analysis

    Almost all people encounter events that will alter their life forever. According to Jacalyn Duffin, her essay summarizes how the Awakenings movie is an evidence to the aspiration of neurologist Oliver Sacks. It is a documentary based on how a group of patients that were contracted with an illness extreme case of Parkinsonism. All patients were harshly limited with movement and the ability of speech, although some gave signs of interaction, only that they were unable to completely express what…

    Words: 1102 - Pages: 5
  • Negative Side Effects Of Antidepressants

    Many people, at some point in their lives, may feel depressed, lonely, or just sad. “Approximately 25 million Americans will have an episode of depression this year alone” (Duckworth). Some people can not get through the sadness alone; they need help from a medication. The reason these antidepressants are needed is due to a chemical imbalance of the brain. Antidepressants can alter the chemical balance of the brain and have many negative side effects when taking one. The main reason that…

    Words: 1195 - Pages: 5
  • The Benefits Of Gene Therapy

    Imagine living in a world where there was a cure for cancer and genetic diseases. Although it may sound impossible, it has already been done. With gene therapy, which is a technique where a gene that is either defective or missing is replaced with healthy ones through genetic engineering, doctors are able to treat people with cancer and immunodeficiencies. Immunodeficiencies are, “Rare but life-threatening genetic diseases that severely compromise the integrity and function of the immune…

    Words: 942 - Pages: 4
  • Methylphenidate Research Paper

    nervous system stimulants and produces several effects including increased alertness and increases in blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and body temperature. It has also been found to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the midbrain/substantia nigra and thalamus. In small-scale studies in children with ADHD, methylphenidate modulates the activity and connectivity between ] frontal-striatal and frontal-parietal regions of the brain. These modulations suppress the activity in the…

    Words: 1154 - Pages: 5
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