Basal ganglia

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    In the past it was believed that the cerebellum received information from various areas of the cortex and projected information to the primary motor cortex via thalamus, thus fine-tuning a movement (19). It was also believed that the Basal ganglia was involved with the inhibition and selection of action commands (19). These views suggest the involvement of both cerebellum and Basal ganglia(BG) in purely motor function. But that is not the case, recent studies have found a connection between the BG and cerebellum and projections from these areas to the cortex through the thalamus. Premotor, prefrontal, temporal and parietal cortices are the areas that receive projections from the BG and the cerebellum implicating its involvement in non-motor…

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    The Basal Ganglia

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    One important role of the basal ganglia is in the service of voluntary, routine smooth motor control, and to inhibit unnecessary movements in the muscles. The basal ganglia is important for other things as well, but in diseases which cause the loss of muscle control as in the case of Parkinson's, it stands to reason that we look more closely at the basal ganglia in respects to its role in movement. The basal ganglia uses Glutamate, and Acetylcholine, both are excitatory neurotransmitters, and…

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    Basal Ganglia Essay

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    The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei that act as a cohesive functional unit, and are located at the base of the forebrain. The basal ganglia have strong connections with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other areas of the brain like the supplemental premotor cortex. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, which include voluntary motor control, procedural learning, eye movements, and even emotional functions. Among its many essential functions, one of its most vital…

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    Basal Ganglia

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    Walking is assisted by the brain, spinal cord, muscles, reflexes and receptors. The act of walking begins from brain and spinal cord which is the planning on how to walk. More precisely, it starts from the cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortex is the region of decision-making and it initiates voluntary response, in this case, the act of walking. Basal ganglia are also responsible for voluntary locomotion. It requires the knowledge of the body’s position in space (where am I walking to) and what…

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    The basal ganglia plays a vital role in the way movement happens and when dopamine does not follow the path that it is suppose to, it hinders body movement. Parkinson’s disease is often known as PD and it is a progressive neurological condition, which means the sickness and symptoms get more severe as time goes on (Noble, 2007). Out of all the neurodegenerative disorders, PD is the second most common one (Noble, 2007). It happens amongst 1% of the population older than sixty years. (Samii,…

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    Parkinson Disease History

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    History Parkinson disease was coined by James Parkinson, an English apothecary surgeon, political an activist, paleontologist and geologist in 1817. He described the disease as a shaking palsy that involves resting tremor, diminished muscles strength, paralysis, unusual posture and gait, and how it progresses overtime. Sixty years later, Jean Martin Charcot, a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology, also the founder of modern neurology. He clearly defined the disease as a slow…

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    neurological condition that is caused when the substantia nigra cells in the brain die (NHS,Causes of Parkinson's, 2015), which means that the neurotransmitter called dopamine, that is released by the dopaminergic neuron, and other transmitters are not getting produced. By the time of diagnosis over 80 percent of the dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia have died which would cause movements to slow down as the person would find it hard to start moving (R.Mc.Ardle. In total, a healthy human…

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    The Brain and Spinal cord are two major components of the Central Nervous System (CNS), which controls all movement we make. Parkinson's Disease is a disorder of the Central Nervous System. People suffering from Parkinson's disease lack the ability to control motor function which cause them to lack balance and have shaky hands. By identifying the cause, symptoms and treatments of Parkinson’s, a conclusion on how Parkinson’s Disease effects the Central Nervous System can be made. The basal…

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    Huntington’s Disease Huntington’s disease is one of the most dreaded diseases among the group of genetic diseases. Huntington’s affects the basal ganglia portion of the brain it is reasonable for a person’s motor functions. Over time huntingtin’s destroys this area. The disease’s name is derived from the ancient Greek word dance. It is named this because after the portion of the brain is partially destroyed, the person walks with an unintentional sway, an almost dance like movement. (Blachford)…

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    Hypoxia Case Study Essay

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    dyspnea. This patient has a mast medical history of Parkinson’s disease, which according to Dr. Bautista and Dr. Grossman is a progressive movement disorder related to the basal-ganglia of the brain, which control movement of the body. At the end of the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia lies the pathway to muscle cells that use dopamine as the neurotransmitter (Bautista & Grossman, 2014). This nigrostriatal pathway is disrupted in Parkinson’s disease, and 70-80% of the neurons need to be…

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