Substitution cipher

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    stages of moving letters around in words to the present use of computer programming to keep certain data safe. Cryptography is the reason we can securely use many day to day applications, but with all these developments come issues of unwanted government surveillance that threatens the privacy of citizens. These issues may be detrimental to the privacy of the information sent and received but cryptography is here to stay as a necessary means of passing that information from one party to another. Cryptography began as soon as language and writing were developed, some early forms were the use of hieroglyphics, or the use of secret messages on animal skins to tell stories or to pass along messages. These more primitive methods lead to the Cipher (or Caesar) disk where there were two rings of the alphabet and the inner ring could be moved around within the circle in order to give each outer alphabet characters a new corresponding letter (Ellison). This process was known as transposition, where letters would be moved around in a uniform way by “adding” to a…

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    Steganography Analysis

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    What is Cryptography? When a message is encoded so it becomes unreadable while making sure only the intended receiver is capable of decoding it back into its original form is what we commonly known as Cryptography. It is done by means of an encryption and decryption algorithm (often the same implemented in reverse order) and very often using a secret key. Some of the early cryptographic systems kept the algorithm itself secret and did not use a key (Stallings, 2014). Only when using a secret key…

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    In a general level the functions of scrambling and unscrambling messages can be called encryption and decryption, thought depending on which technique is used there exists a more specific vocabulary. The opposite of cryptography is cryptanalysis, the science of breaking codes and ciphers. One of the earliest cryptanalytic techniques is frequency analysis, a process which was first described by “the philosopher of Arabs, al-Kindi” in the ninth century. The basis of this technique is the analysis…

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    Modern cryptography uses binary arithmetic because that is what computers use, and cannot be represented in the previous methods of encrypting. The different types of ciphers used in modern cryptography are made for computers, and that is why there is such vast use of them today. Stream ciphers and block ciphers are the two classes of algorithms (Gove 1). “Stream ciphers operate on essentially continuous streams of plain text represented as 1s and 0s, while Block ciphers operate on blocks of…

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    Weerasinge’s research paper is done based on two measurement criteria under two circumstances: First circumstance: Variable is the input plaintext size (input is given as text files, size is measured in kilobytes) Second circumstance: Variable is the input plaintext length, i.e. input character length (inputs are assumed as passwords) Two measurement criteria: * Secrecy of Ciphers (According to Shannon’s secrecy theorems) * Encryption…

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    1.1 Overview Cryptography is the science/practice of “writing in secret” (“crypto”= “secret, “graphy” = “writing”). Cryptographic functions are generally defined as algorithms or protocols, rules that govern how data is processed to turn plaintext (unencrypted data) into cipher text (encrypted data) [1]. Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a form that only those it is intended for can read and process. It is considered a science of protecting information by…

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    The operation is a simple XOR between each byte of the State and each byte of the sub-key.As initially 11 arrays are formed out of that 1 use for initialization process and from that array key expansion is done. Thus the keys formed total W43 which are used further for next 10 rounds. Each round uses 4 word key along with plaintext/cipher text. V Conclusion This synopsis addresses this issue by assessing the impact of each new transformation as a part of the overall AES system. It has two…

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    Blockchain Essay

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    Chapter 1 what is Blockchain? Basically, Blockchain is a system created essentially for the running of cryptocurrencies. Wikipedia defines a cryptocurrency as a digital asset that works as a medium of exchange and uses cryptography to secure all transactions and to control the creation of additional units of the currency. An example of such cryptocurrencies is the bitcoin. In this article, we will understand the following: • Basic meaning of blockchain • What it comprises of • How it…

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    Decoding the Grimm Brothers "Once Upon a Time" is a very common introduction to a fairy tale. Many fairy tales are well known by people throughout the globe. People may know these tales but they do not actually know what they mean. The Grimm Brothers’ fairy tales contain much symbolism and unique stylistic trends which have the ability to drastically change the meaning of each story that the brothers wrote. Some of these symbolic aspects include childhood innocence, justice and vengeance. A…

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    Digital Signature are used in network security are as follows: Application of digital signature is on the upward push because of the reality of felony and technological developments, alongside with authorities initiated solid market demand for secured transactions on the Internet. Digital signature capacities contain encoding messages such that totally authentic parties are in a part to decrypt the message. Two separate however interrelated 'keys' perceived as public key and Privet key elevate…

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