Page 1 of 2 - About 11 Essays
  • Analysis Of GUK1 Result

    Differential alternative splicing human tissue network analysis of GUK1 Result Figure 4.12: Visualisation of alternative splicing gene GUK1 in human tissues. Differential alternative splicing genes between two different tissues comparison were shown on a different visualisation platform and tools in comparison with network analysis. (A) rMATS analysis. Histogram shows inclusion level ψ, per sample for each tissue comparisons. In this case, only exon 3 found as statistically alternative splicing significance of skipped exon (SE) in both tissue comparisons; heart vs. liver and brain vs. liver. The inclusion level in the heart is 0.9 and 0.35 in the liver for tissue comparison heart vs. liver; while inclusion level in the brain is 0.83 and 0.28 in the liver for tissue comparison brain vs. liver. (B) Vials – visualising alternative splicing of genes. Data shows here is from the Illumina BodyMap 2.0. There are three views which are junction view, isoform abundance view and expression view. For each row in the isoform abundance view represent a particular isoform. Dark bar represents the exon that is included whilst the greyed out area represents the full spectrum of that exon’s splicing. A dot plots showing abundance for each tissue and for junction view show the junction reads. Dot plots show the abundance of junction support. Three tissues of brain, heart and liver were selected and multiple dot plots shown to allow comparison between these tissues. Different tissues show…

    Words: 2010 - Pages: 9
  • Proteins: Large, Complex Macromolecules In Organisms

    portions of a gene that do not code for amino acids, while exons do code for amino acids and contribute to the production of proteins (ghr intron). In the cells of plants and animals, most gene sequences are broken up by introns, which lay in between the expressed regions, exons. During protein synthesis, non-coding sequences of DNA are removed from mature messenger RNA prior to translation. DNA that was first transcribed to mRNA contain introns that are removed, or spliced, out of the messenger…

    Words: 1470 - Pages: 6
  • Eukaryotic Synthesis

    transcription factors also help terminating transcription. RNA transcripts must go through these processing steps to become mature mRNAs in order to leave the nucleus. During initiation, an enzyme attaches a 5’ cap to the first base in the transcript. This modified version of a guanine (G) nucleotide makes it more stable and protecting it from breaking down, protecting the mRNA produced. At the 3’ end of the transcript a long sequence of adenine (A) nucleotides are attached, called the poly-A…

    Words: 1359 - Pages: 6
  • Protein Synthesis Lab Report

    monocistronic mRNA molecules, meaning that the molecule will only code for cistron, and henceforth one protein. Conversely, Prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic. This means that one mRNA molecule codes for multiple cistrons, resulting in the production of many proteins upon translation. Proteins produced from this polycistronic mRNA will likely have related function, for example each cistron may code for the subunits of the quaternary structure of a globular protein. Eukaryotes contain non coding…

    Words: 773 - Pages: 4
  • Bacterial Transformation Lab Report

    molecule, the RNA goes through another phase before maturation. Transcription is only the first step in a sequence of reactions that consist of the covalent alteration of both ends of the RNA and the deletion of intron sequences that are deleted from the center of the RNA transcript by the process of RNA splicing. According to the textbook “Biology”, particles called small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles abbreviated as snRNPs (pronounced “snurps”) contain snRNA that networks with the 5’ end…

    Words: 2187 - Pages: 9
  • Segmental Trans-Splicing Case Study

    Q1. Explain segmental trans-splicing (STS) and mention a long gene 8 kb or more, this strategy could be used for. A1. Segmental trans-splicing concept is similar to that of trans-splicing, where exons of two different gene fragments are joined together. However, in STS it can be used to target gene sequences that are too large for a viral vector genetic capacity; for example the von Willbrand factor gene (8.6 kb) or the muscular dystrophy gene (11.0 kb). In STS a 5’exon of the gene is delivered…

    Words: 957 - Pages: 4
  • The Nuclecule Of Life: The Structure Of DNA

    range of functional elements identified by the ENCODE project, have made it more difficult to clearly define what exactly a gene is (The Encode Project Consortium 2007). Gerstein and colleagues proposed an updated definition of a gene as: “a union of genomic sequences encoding a coherent set of potentially overlapping products” (Gerstein et al. 2007). Protein-coding genes make up only 1.5% of the total sequence of the genome. They have a structure that includes an untranslated region (UTR) at…

    Words: 1212 - Pages: 5
  • Influence Of Genetic Differences In Living Organisms

    transcription is termination. Termination occurs when RNA polymerase reaches the terminator. The terminator is a DNA sequence that is read by RNA polymerase and signals the end of transcription. After the terminator sequence is read the RNA polymerase and the mRNA detach from the DNA. Even though an mRNA has been transcribed from a DNA sequence, it is not ready to be exported to the cytoplasm and translated. The mRNA must undergo mRNA splicing. An m RNA contains introns and exons. The exons…

    Words: 1415 - Pages: 6
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    common, and relapse represents the major cause of treatment failure.” (5). The ultimate goal of this study was to identify nonoverlapping subgroups of patients, and to permit a fully genomic classification of AML. In this disease, since the final issue is an abnormal and unhealthy cell, this study reports the different mutations that communicate the clinical outcomes. The authors identified 5,234 driver mutations, which are mutations that push cells towards cancer, involving 76 genes in 1,540…

    Words: 1302 - Pages: 6
  • Gm Foods Case Study

    5’-3’ and becomes the leading strand. Strand B is 3’-5’ so in order for replication occur, Strand B has to wait for the replication fork to open up more to replicate the next 5’-3’ chunk (okazaki fragments). 37. DNA contains genes that code for gene products, which are proteins or RNAs that are important to the functioning of our cells. RNA polymerase binds to a short, specific sequence on a gene in the DNA called the promoter, then opens the DNA double helix and begins to synthesize mRNA…

    Words: 1476 - Pages: 6
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