Proteins are large, complex macromolecules that play many important roles in organisms. They are required for the regulation, structure, and function of the body’s organs and tissues. Some may act as antibodies, chemical messengers, enzymes, structural components, and transport devices within the cell. Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller subunits known as amino acids. Amino acids are made up of a single carbon atom attached to a carboxyl group, an amino group, and a unique side chain, or R-group. These amino acids are attached together using peptide bonds in long chains to form the protein. After amino acids join in chains, they become polypeptides. Many polypeptides come together and fold into 3-dimensional structured proteins. There are three structures a protein passes before being a complete protein. First is the primary structure, which is just amino acids linked together with peptide bonds. Next is the secondary structure, the specific geometric shape caused by intermolecular hydrogen bonding of amide groups. These may show in two shapes: alpha helices or beta-sheets. Finally, the protein displays as a fully functional 3-dimensional being in the tertiary structure.
Numerous steps are taken in protein synthesis. The process begins when one …show more content…
The ribosome reads information along the mRNA and brings the amino acid together with help from transfer RNA. Transfer RNA has a cloverleaf shape with base-paired arms and an attached anticodon sequence. At the bottom of the tRNA there is an anticodon that pairs with a codon on mRNA. A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides. Codons are read, in order, by tRNA, which aligns with the codon and attracts the corresponding amino acid. It continues this same cycle, connecting amino acids, to make a growing polypeptide