Unit 18 Genetics: Questions And Answers

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Unit 18 - Genetics
(Assignment 1)

Task 1.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA for short) is genetic material that carry’s the majority of information for development growth and many other functions. DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell. DNA has a double helix structure and is formed by a series of bases these are Adenine , Cytosine , Guanine and Thymine. These bases have a basic pattern when forming DNA. Adenine will only join to Thymine when in DNA and Cytosine will only join to Guanine when in DNA. These bases are bonded by hydrogen bonds. Each base has a start an end in each sequence of the DNA structure. The strands of DNA are only separated in DNA replication. The double helix structure of DNA was first discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1869.
1

mRNA carries genetic information from the DNA to the ribosome and helps choose what amino acid should be produced. mRNA is single stranded and it binds to template as free nucleotides
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Amino acid chain for insulin: GYL-ILE-VAL-GLU-GLN-CYS-SER-LEU-TYR-GLN-LEU-GLU-ASN-TYR-CYS-ASN.

Codon code for line A of insulin.
Glycine-GGU-Isoleucine-AUU- Valine-GUU - Glutamic Acid- GAG Glutamine-CAA Cystesine-UGU- Serine-UCU- Leucine- CUU- Tyrosine- UAU- Glutamine-CAA-Leucine-CUU- Glutamic Acid- GAG- Asparagine - AAU- Cystesine-UGU - Asparagine-AAU.

B) Insulin is made in the DNA when the mRNA copy’s a specific strand/section of the DNA in this case the mRNA begins at Glycine-GGU and ends at Asparagine-AAU this is the basis of human insulin. The tRNA strand then joins the mRNA to the specific amino acid for example tRNA links the start of insulin Glycine (amino acid ) to GUU (mRNA strand from DNA) by doing this it creates a long chain of amino acids which then forms a protein. In this case the long chain of amino acids above have formed the protein Insulin.
Where insulin is stored: insulin is stored in the cells of the pancreas where Insulin is most needed for your body to make

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