Carcinoma in situ

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    In situ carcinoma In situ carcinomas are malignant epithelial growths that are limited to the acini, terminal ductules, or ductal system of the breast without invasion into the surrounding breast stroma. (25) 1) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): also known as intraductal carcinoma is considered noninvasive or pre-invasive breast cancer, DCIS means a malignant proliferation of epithelial cells, confined to the lumen of ducts. In situ carcinomas were divided into three grades: comedocarcinoma has been placed in grade 3. Solid, cribriform and micropapillary carcinomas were designated as grade 1 and classified as grade 2 if they had intermediate cytomorphology. (54) Comedocarcinoma: is grossly, thick walled ducts filled with…

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    A quote to highlight the misuse of medical ethics is “TeLinde disagreed— he believed carcinoma in situ was simply an early stage of invasive carcinoma that, if left untreated, eventually became deadly. So he treated it aggressively, often removing the cervix, uterus, and most of the vagina” (Skloot 165). This was unethical because there was no proven way to tell if this was the best treatment method, he did it just because he thought it was best. This is an example of a doctor using his own…

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    Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma In 2011, an estimated 1300 new cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed in Canada, with about 350 deaths stated by the Canadian Cancer Society (as cited in CMAJ, 2013). Cervical cancer is a disease that can be very serious. It is one of the most common types of cancer in women worldwide. To properly care for these patient’s nurses should have a strong knowledge and understanding about the pathophysiology, risk factors, stages, treatments, and nursing…

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    Quantum Dots Essay

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    nanoparticles in samples were visualised. Bio-distribution of nanoparticles in samples was also observed by the confocal fluorescence microscopy, hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy imaging for confirmation purpose1. Bioluminescence observation suggested a significant proportion of samples were successfully labelled with nanodots and they can be clearly visualised in all three different experimental conditions: in vitro (labelled spermatozoa and oocytes),…

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    statistical analysis was performed in the study. This analysis allowed for further methods, rankings, models, probabilities and other types of analysis to interpret or simulate the survival of the individual. In the results section, it provides a little background on the median age. As well it mentions that men where the majority of the patients. In addition, it provides data on the number of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), adenocarcinomas and large cell carcinomas (LCCs) with the information…

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    antibody (1:200 dilution, Vectastain Elite ABC kit, Vector Laboratories, Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA) prepared based on the instruction from the manufacturer. The sections were then washed 15 min by 4 times and incubated with diluted Vectastain Elite ABC reagent made up following the manual for 1.5 hours. The sections were visualized with ImmPACTTMVIP peroxidase substrate kit (Vector Laboratories, Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA) according to the manual and examined under a bright field microscope. The…

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    4.1. Historical Accounts The purpose of this objective was to gather current studies about the co-infection of HIV/HBV and provide facts with evidences to Liver Health Connection. Hence, Liver Health Connection utilizes the product of the research to educate providers, the community, and patients. As I indicated in my proposal, the first objective was to research about the Viral Hepatitis B (HBV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection Before the start of objective one, LHC provided…

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    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant tumor with a growing burden in the United States with increasing prevalence. It is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and second highest in terms of mortality, with one million cancer deaths yearly. A variety of risk factors contribute to HCC, including hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cirrhosis of any cause including environmental toxins, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,…

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    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

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    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Intro & History Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpesviridae family, is a prevalent viral pathogen called human herpes virus 5 (HHV5)[5]. It can infect many organs and is commonly asymptomatic[1]. Once infected with CMV, patients will carry the infection for life, as the virus could remain latent in white blood cells of our body with and without the demonstration of symptoms[1]. The virus can be reactivated during other illness or stress, this may occur with or…

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    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

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    The core of the hepatitis B virus is generally in the shape of an icosahedron. Within the virus, there are two strands of DNA, one smaller than the other, which is circular. HBV is around 42 nm in width, and the core is surrounded in a 4nm thick coat. They are enveloped, which means they are more susceptible to being destroyed, because the envelope is very thin. Viruses in general are very small, much smaller than bacteria, and HBV is no different. (Image:…

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