Hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant tumor with a growing burden in the United States with increasing prevalence. It is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and second highest in terms of mortality, with one million cancer deaths yearly. A variety of risk factors contribute to HCC, including hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cirrhosis of any cause including environmental toxins, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hereditary hemochromatosis or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency among others. There has been significant increase in the rate of HBV- and HCV-related HCC[1]. Liver cirrhosis is the most important pre-malignant lesion of HCC, but HCC can occur in non-cirrhotic patients too, with the predominant risk factor being HBV infection[1]. In non-cirrhotic patients, occurrence of HCC is established to have been mostly because of HBV[2]. .…

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    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver cancer, is one of the dreaded complications of chronic liver disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies have revealed the pivotal role played by the alteration of gut-liver axis in the onset of chronic liver diseases, including HCC. Altered gut microbiota and endotoxemia are increasingly recognized as critical components in promoting the procession of chronic liver diseases and the development of HCC. Probiotics have…

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    The etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma are still unknown but some risk factors have been recognized which are cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C, heavy alcohol use, obesity, diabetes, hereditary conditions such as hemochromatosis and intake of aflatoxin-contaminated food (arun j). Cirrhosis is the primary factor risk for developing HCC. Based on (), 90-95% of people who develop HCC have underlying cirrhosis. The cirrhosis is a condition where the normal liver tissue are replaced by scar tissue after…

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    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is also known as malignant hepatoma. It is the most common type of liver carcinoma. What Are The Risk Factors? The major risk factors include cirrhosis and underlying liver diseases. Cirrhosis may be caused by alcohol abuse, Hepatitis B/C virus infection, autoimmune liver diseases, chronic liver inflammation, and hemochromatosis. Some of the underlying liver diseases, which commonly manifests into HCC are: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)…

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    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

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    The core of the hepatitis B virus is generally in the shape of an icosahedron. Within the virus, there are two strands of DNA, one smaller than the other, which is circular. HBV is around 42 nm in width, and the core is surrounded in a 4nm thick coat. They are enveloped, which means they are more susceptible to being destroyed, because the envelope is very thin. Viruses in general are very small, much smaller than bacteria, and HBV is no different. (Image:…

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    Organ Allocation Ethics

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    Organ Allocation is a field of bioethics that is always at great debate and consistently being updated in accordance to new information obtained through daily research. The decisions brought forth to those in deciding organizations are expansive and ethically thought-provoking. The list is heavily sided to those in need versus those that give. Ethical treatment of the organs is of the upmost urgency. These are noted as lifesaving elements and should be treated justly and with reverence. Those in…

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    4.1. Historical Accounts The purpose of this objective was to gather current studies about the co-infection of HIV/HBV and provide facts with evidences to Liver Health Connection. Hence, Liver Health Connection utilizes the product of the research to educate providers, the community, and patients. As I indicated in my proposal, the first objective was to research about the Viral Hepatitis B (HBV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection Before the start of objective one, LHC provided…

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    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

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    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Intro & History Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpesviridae family, is a prevalent viral pathogen called human herpes virus 5 (HHV5)[5]. It can infect many organs and is commonly asymptomatic[1]. Once infected with CMV, patients will carry the infection for life, as the virus could remain latent in white blood cells of our body with and without the demonstration of symptoms[1]. The virus can be reactivated during other illness or stress, this may occur with or…

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    incubation to take place for 20 minutes at normal body temperature. After the incubation, there was a staining procedure to allow for the visualization of the nuclei. These specimens were then scored. This scoring was used in order to compare and combine CD45RO with CD8. Because there was the usage of scores, statistical analysis was performed in the study. This analysis allowed for further methods, rankings, models, probabilities and other types of analysis to interpret or simulate the survival…

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    A quote to highlight the misuse of medical ethics is “TeLinde disagreed— he believed carcinoma in situ was simply an early stage of invasive carcinoma that, if left untreated, eventually became deadly. So he treated it aggressively, often removing the cervix, uterus, and most of the vagina” (Skloot 165). This was unethical because there was no proven way to tell if this was the best treatment method, he did it just because he thought it was best. This is an example of a doctor using his own…

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